D. Allison, J. Kaprio, M. Korkeila, M. Koskenvuo, M. Neale et al., The heritability of body mass index among an international sample of monozygotic twins reared apart, Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, vol.20, issue.6, pp.501-506, 1996.

E. Bonora, S. Kiechl, J. Willeit, F. Oberhollenzer, G. Egger et al., Prevalence of insulin resistance in metabolic disorders: the Bruneck Study, Diabetes, vol.47, issue.10, pp.471643-1649, 1998.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.47.10.1643

E. Speliotes, C. Willer, S. Berndt, K. Monda, G. Thorleifsson et al., Association analyses of 249,796 individuals reveal 18 new loci associated with body mass index, Nature Genetics, vol.74, issue.11, pp.42937-948, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ajhg.2010.02.020

R. Loos, C. Lindgren, S. Li, E. Wheeler, J. Zhao et al., Common variants near MC4R are associated with fat mass, weight and risk of obesity, Nature Genetics, vol.2, issue.6, pp.40768-775, 2008.
DOI : 10.1086/521580

C. Willer, E. Speliotes, R. Loos, S. Li, C. Lindgren et al., Six new loci associated with body mass index highlight a neuronal influence on body weight regulation, Nature Genetics, vol.294, issue.1, pp.4125-4159, 2009.
DOI : 10.1086/521580

D. Meyre, N. Bouatia-naji, A. Tounian, C. Samson, C. Lecoeur et al., Variants of ENPP1 are associated with childhood and adult obesity and increase the risk of glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes, Nature Genetics, vol.68, issue.8, pp.37863-867, 2005.
DOI : 10.1038/ng1604

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00174474

D. Meyre, J. Delplanque, J. Chevre, C. Lecoeur, S. Lobbens et al., Genome-wide association study for early-onset and morbid adult obesity identifies three new risk loci in European populations, Nature Genetics, vol.276, issue.2, pp.41157-159, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/S0006-291X(02)00379-0

T. Frayling, N. Timpson, M. Weedon, E. Zeggini, R. Freathy et al., A Common Variant in the FTO Gene Is Associated with Body Mass Index and Predisposes to Childhood and Adult Obesity, Science, vol.316, issue.5826, pp.316889-894, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1141634

C. Dina, D. Meyre, C. Samson, J. Tichet, M. Marre et al., Comment on "A Common Genetic Variant Is Associated with Adult and Childhood Obesity", Science, vol.315, issue.5809, pp.315187-187, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1129402

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00126938

D. Rosskopf, A. Bornhorst, C. Rimmbach, C. Schwahn, A. Kayser et al., Comment on "A Common Genetic Variant Is Associated with Adult and Childhood Obesity", Science, vol.315, issue.5809, pp.315187-187, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1130571

H. Lyon, V. Emilsson, A. Hinney, I. Heid, J. Lasky-su et al., The Association of a SNP Upstream of INSIG2 with Body Mass Index is Reproduced in Several but Not All Cohorts, PLoS Genetics, vol.19, issue.4, p.61, 2007.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pgen.0030061.st001

R. Kuczmarski, C. Ogden, S. Guo, L. Grummer-strawn, K. Flegal et al., CDC Growth Charts for the United States: methods and development, Vital Health Stat, vol.11, issue.246, pp.20021-190, 2000.

S. Barlow, Expert Committee Recommendations Regarding the Prevention, Assessment, and Treatment of Child and Adolescent Overweight and Obesity: Summary Report, PEDIATRICS, vol.120, issue.Supplement, pp.164-192, 2007.
DOI : 10.1542/peds.2007-2329C

G. Cuartero, B. , G. Lacalle, C. , J. Lobo et al., [The HOMA and QUICKI indexes, and insulin and C-peptide levels in healthy children. Cut off points to identify metabolic syndrome in healthy children], An Pediatr, issue.5, pp.66481-490, 2007.

C. Juarez-lopez, M. Klunder-klunder, P. Medina-bravo, A. Madrigal-azcarate, E. Mass-diaz et al., Insulin resistance and its association with the components of the metabolic syndrome among obese children and adolescents, BMC Public Health, vol.31, issue.5, p.318, 2010.
DOI : 10.2337/dc07-1647

C. Cheung, A. Tso, B. Cheung, A. Xu, K. Ong et al., Obesity Susceptibility Genetic Variants Identified from Recent Genome-Wide Association Studies: Implications in a Chinese Population, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.95, issue.3, pp.951395-1403, 2010.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.2009-1465

F. Takeuchi, K. Yamamoto, T. Katsuya, T. Nabika, T. Sugiyama et al., Association of genetic variants for susceptibility to obesity with type 2 diabetes in Japanese individuals, Diabetologia, vol.14, issue.Suppl 1, pp.541350-1359, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-011-2086-8

L. Wu, B. Xi, M. Zhang, Y. Shen, X. Zhao et al., Associations of six single nucleotide polymorphisms in obesityrelated genes with BMI and risk of obesity in Chinese children, Diabetes, issue.12, pp.593085-3089, 2010.

R. Loos, Recent progress in the genetics of common obesity, British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, vol.29, issue.7240, pp.811-829, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2125.2009.03523.x

J. Liang, M. Fu, E. Ciociola, M. Chandalia, and N. Abate, Role of ENPP1 on Adipocyte Maturation, PLoS ONE, vol.111, issue.3, p.882, 2007.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0000882.g005

M. Villalobos-comparan, T. Flores-dorantes, M. , T. Villarreal-molina, M. Rodriguez-cruz et al., The FTO gene is associated with adulthood obesity in the Mexican population, Obesity, issue.10, pp.162296-2301, 2008.

D. Jelinek, V. Millward, A. Birdi, T. Trouard, R. Heidenreich et al., Npc1 haploinsufficiency promotes weight gain and metabolic features associated with insulin resistance, Human Molecular Genetics, vol.20, issue.2, pp.312-321, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/hmg/ddq466

M. Den-hoed, J. Luan, C. Langenberg, C. Cooper, A. Sayer et al., Evaluation of common genetic variants identified by GWAS for early onset and morbid obesity in population-based samples, International Journal of Obesity, vol.77, issue.2
DOI : 10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.207191

K. Hotta, M. Nakamura, T. Nakamura, T. Matsuo, Y. Nakata et al., Association between obesity and polymorphisms in SEC16B, TMEM18, GNPDA2, BDNF, FAIM2 and MC4R in a Japanese population, Journal of Human Genetics, vol.15, issue.12, pp.54727-731, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)81865-6

A. Morris, B. Voight, T. Teslovich, T. Ferreira, A. Segre et al., Large-scale association analysis provides insights into the genetic architecture and pathophysiology of type 2 diabetes, Nature Genetics, vol.224, issue.9, pp.44981-990
DOI : 10.1038/ng1508

B. Xi, F. Takeuchi, G. Chandak, N. Kato, H. Pan et al., Common polymorphism near the MC4R gene is associated with type 2 diabetes: data from a meta-analysis of 123,373 individuals, Diabetologia, vol.2012, issue.10, pp.552660-2666

. Mejía-benítez, Analysis of the contribution of FTO, NPC1, ENPP1, NEGR1, GNPDA2 and MC4R genes to obesity in Mexican children, BMC Medical Genetics, 201314.