Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force

Jérôme Galon 1, 2, 3, 4, * Franck Pagès 1, 2, 3 Francesco Marincola 4, 5 Helen Angell 1, 2 Magdalena Thurin 6 Alessandro Lugli 7 Inti Zlobec 7 Anne Berger 3 Carlo Bifulco 8 Gerardo Botti 9 Fabiana Tatangelo 9 Cedrik Britten 10 Sebastian Kreiter 9 Lotfi Chouchane 11 Paolo Delrio 12 Hartmann Arndt 13 Martin Asslaber 14 Michele Maio 15 Giuseppe Masucci 16 Martin Mihm 17 Fernando Vidal-Vanaclocha 18 James Allison 19 Sacha Gnjatic 9 Leif Hakansson 20 Christoph Huber 10 Harpreet Singh-Jasuja 21 Christian Ottensmeier 22 Heinz Zwierzina 23 Luigi Laghi 24 Fabio Grizzi 9 Pamela Ohashi 25 Patricia Shaw 26 Blaise Clarke 26 Bradly Wouters 26 Yutaka Kawakami 27 Shoichi Hazama 28 Kiyotaka Okuno 29 Ena Wang 5 Jill O'Donnell-Tormey 30 Christine Lagorce 31 Graham Pawelec 32 Michael Nishimura 33 Robert Hawkins 34 Réjean Lapointe 35 Andreas Lundqvist 36 Samir Khleif 37 Shuji Ogino 38 Peter Gibbs 39 Paul Waring 40 Noriyuki Sato 41 Toshihiko Torigoe 9 Kyogo Itoh 42 Prabhu Patel 43 Shilin Shukla 43 Richard Palmqvist 44 Iris Nagtegaal 45 Yili Wang 46 Corrado D'Arrigo 47 Scott Kopetz 48 Frank Sinicrope 49 Giorgio Trinchieri 50 Thomas Gajewski 4, 51 Paolo Ascierto 52, 53 Bernard Fox 4, 54, 55
* Auteur correspondant
Abstract : Prediction of clinical outcome in cancer is usually achieved by histopathological evaluation of tissue samples obtained during surgical resection of the primary tumor. Traditional tumor staging (AJCC/UICC-TNM classification) summarizes data on tumor burden (T), presence of cancer cells in draining and regional lymph nodes (N) and evidence for metastases (M). However, it is now recognized that clinical outcome can significantly vary among patients within the same stage. The current classification provides limited prognostic information, and does not predict response to therapy. Recent literature has alluded to the importance of the host immune system in controlling tumor progression. Thus, evidence supports the notion to include immunological biomarkers, implemented as a tool for the prediction of prognosis and response to therapy. Accumulating data, collected from large cohorts of human cancers, has demonstrated the impact of immune-classification, which has a prognostic value that may add to the significance of the AJCC/UICC TNM-classification. It is therefore imperative to begin to incorporate the 'Immunoscore' into traditional classification, thus providing an essential prognostic and potentially predictive tool. Introduction of this parameter as a biomarker to classify cancers, as part of routine diagnostic and prognostic assessment of tumors, will facilitate clinical decision-making including rational stratification of patient treatment. Equally, the inherent complexity of quantitative immunohistochemistry, in conjunction with protocol variation across laboratories, analysis of different immune cell types, inconsistent region selection criteria, and variable ways to quantify immune infiltration, all underline the urgent requirement to reach assay harmonization. In an effort to promote the Immunoscore in routine clinical settings, an international task force was initiated. This review represents a follow-up of the announcement of this initiative, and of the J Transl Med. editorial from January 2012. Immunophenotyping of tumors may provide crucial novel prognostic information. The results of this international validation may result in the implementation of the Immunoscore as a new component for the classification of cancer, designated TNM-I (TNM-Immune).
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Journal of Translational Medicine, BioMed Central, 2012, 10 (1), pp.205. 〈10.1186/1479-5876-10-205〉
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Jérôme Galon, Franck Pagès, Francesco Marincola, Helen Angell, Magdalena Thurin, et al.. Cancer classification using the Immunoscore: a worldwide task force. Journal of Translational Medicine, BioMed Central, 2012, 10 (1), pp.205. 〈10.1186/1479-5876-10-205〉. 〈inserm-00780742〉

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