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Modulating absorption and postprandial handling of dietary fatty acids by structuring fat in the meal: a randomized crossover clinical trial.: Fat structuring modifies postprandial metabolism

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Prolonged postprandial hypertriglyceridemia is a potential risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. In the context of obesity, this is associated with a chronic imbalance of lipid partitioning oriented toward storage and not toward β-oxidation. OBJECTIVE: We tested the hypothesis that the physical structure of fat in a meal can modify the absorption, chylomicron transport, and further metabolic handling of dietary fatty acids. DESIGN: Nine normal-weight and 9 obese subjects were fed 40 g milk fat (+[(13)C]triacylglycerols), either emulsified or nonemulsified, in breakfasts of identical composition. We measured the postprandial triacylglycerol content and size of the chylomicron-rich fraction, plasma kinetics of [(13)C]fatty acids, exogenous lipid oxidation with breath-test/indirect calorimetry, and fecal excretion. RESULTS: The emulsified fat resulted in earlier (>1 h) and sharper chylomicron and [(13)C]fatty acid peaks in plasma than in spread fat in both groups (P < 0.0001). After 2 h, the emulsified fat resulted in greater apolipoprotein B-48 concentrations (9.7 ± 0.7 compared with 7.1 ± 0.9 mg/L; P < 0.05) in the normal-weight subjects than did the spread fat. In the obese subjects, emulsified fat resulted in a 3-fold greater chylomicron size (218 ± 24 nm) compared with the spread fat (P < 0.05). The emulsified fat induced higher dietary fatty acid spillover in plasma and a sharper (13)CO(2) appearance, which provoked increased exogenous lipid oxidation in each group: from 45% to 52% in normal-weight subjects (P < 0.05) and from 40% to 57% in obese subjects (P < 0.01). CONCLUSION: This study supports a new concept of "slow vs fast fat," whereby intestinal absorption can be modulated by structuring dietary fat to modulate postprandial lipemia and lipid β-oxidation in humans with different BMIs. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01249378.
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Submitted on : Tuesday, December 18, 2012 - 3:51:24 PM
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Cécile Vors, Gaëlle Pineau, Laure Gabert, Jocelyne Drai, Corinne Louche-Pélissier, et al.. Modulating absorption and postprandial handling of dietary fatty acids by structuring fat in the meal: a randomized crossover clinical trial.: Fat structuring modifies postprandial metabolism. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, American Society for Nutrition, 2013, 97 (1), pp.23-36. ⟨10.3945/ajcn.112.043976⟩. ⟨inserm-00766661⟩

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