S. Anant, D. , and N. O. , Molecular mechanisms of apolipoprotein B mRNA editing, Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol.12, issue.2, pp.159-165, 2001.
DOI : 10.1097/00041433-200104000-00009

H. Betz and B. Laube, Glycine receptors: recent insights into their structural organization and functional diversity, Journal of Neurochemistry, vol.63, issue.6, pp.1600-1610, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S0896-6273(04)00141-2

T. Bhalla, J. J. Rosenthal, M. Holmgren, and R. And-reenan, Control of human potassium channel inactivation by editing of a small mRNA hairpin, Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, vol.391, issue.10, pp.950-956, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/0896-6273(88)90192-4

A. Bragin, P. Claeys, K. Vonck, R. D. Van, C. Wilson et al., Analysis of Initial Slow Waves (ISWs) at the Seizure Onset in Patients with Drug Resistant Temporal Lobe Epilepsy, Epilepsia, vol.493, issue.10, pp.1883-1894, 2007.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1404-04.2004

H. G. Breitinger and C. M. Becker, The Inhibitory Glycine Receptor???Simple Views of a Complicated Channel, ChemBioChem, vol.3, issue.11, pp.1042-1052, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/1439-7633(20021104)3:11<1042::AID-CBIC1042>3.0.CO;2-7

H. G. Breitinger, C. Villmann, K. Becker, and C. M. Becker, Opposing Effects of Molecular Volume and Charge at the Hyperekplexia Site ??1(P250) Govern Glycine Receptor Activation and Desensitization, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.276, issue.32, pp.29657-29663, 2001.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M100446200

H. G. Breitinger, C. Villmann, J. Rennert, D. Ballhausen, and C. M. Becker, Hydroxylated residues influence desensitization behaviour of recombinant ??3 glycine receptor channels, Journal of Neurochemistry, vol.19, issue.1, pp.30-36, 2002.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1471-4159.2002.01109.x

R. Brusa, F. Zimmermann, D. S. Koh, D. Feldmeyer, P. Gass et al., Early-Onset Epilepsy and Postnatal Lethality Associated with an Editing-Deficient GluR-B Allele in Mice, Science, vol.270, issue.5242, pp.1677-1680, 1995.
DOI : 10.1126/science.270.5242.1677

S. D. Buckingham, P. C. Biggin, B. M. Sattelle, L. A. Brown, and D. B. Sattelle, Insect GABA Receptors: Splicing, Editing, and Targeting by Antiparasitics and Insecticides, Molecular Pharmacology, vol.68, issue.4, pp.942-951, 2005.
DOI : 10.1124/mol.105.015313

V. Burzomato, M. Beato, P. J. Groot-kormelink, D. Colquhoun, and L. G. Sivilotti, Single-Channel Behavior of Heteromeric ??1?? Glycine Receptors: An Attempt to Detect a Conformational Change before the Channel Opens, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.24, issue.48, pp.10924-10940, 2004.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.3424-04.2004

V. B. Caraiscos, E. M. Elliott, T. You, V. Y. Cheng, D. Belelli et al., Tonic inhibition in mouse hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons is mediated by alpha5 subunitcontaining gamma-aminobutyric acid, 2004.

. Legendre, GlyR posttranscriptional processing type A receptors, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci

P. H. Celie, R. V. Klaassen, S. E. Rossum-fikkert, R. Van-elk, P. Van-nierop et al., Crystal Structure of Acetylcholine-binding Protein from Bulinus truncatus Reveals the Conserved Structural Scaffold and Sites of Variation in Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.280, issue.28, pp.26457-26466, 2005.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M414476200

D. Colquhoun, Binding, gating, affi nity and effi cacy: the interpretation of structure-activity relationships for agonists and of the effects of mutating receptors, Br. J. Pharmacol, vol.125, pp.924-947, 1998.

B. Cubelos, C. Gimenez, and F. Zafra, Localization of the GLYT1 Glycine Transporter at Glutamatergic Synapses in the Rat Brain, Cerebral Cortex, vol.15, issue.4, pp.448-459, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/cercor/bhh147

M. Dahan, S. Levi, C. Luccardini, P. Rostaing, B. Riveau et al., Diffusion Dynamics of Glycine Receptors Revealed by Single-Quantum Dot Tracking, Science, vol.302, issue.5644, pp.442-445, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1088525

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00002449

D. Saint, J. David-watine, B. Korn, H. Bregestovski, and P. , Activation of human alpha1 and alpha2 homomeric glycine receptors by taurine and GABA, J. Physiol, vol.535, pp.741-755, 2001.

S. A. Eichler, B. Forstera, B. Smolinsky, R. Juttner, T. N. Lehmann et al., Splice-specific roles of glycine receptor ??3 in the hippocampus, European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.33, issue.6, pp.1077-1091, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2009.06903.x

S. A. Eichler, S. Kirischuk, R. Jüttner, P. K. Schäfermeier, P. Legendre et al., Glycinergic tonic inhibition of hippocampal neurons with depolarizing GABAergic transmission elicits histopathological signs of temporal lobe epilepsy, Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, vol.24, issue.6b, pp.2848-2866, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00357.x

E. J. Geiman, W. Zheng, J. M. Fritschy, and F. J. Alvarez, Glycine and GABAA receptor subunits on Renshaw cells: Relationship with presynaptic neurotransmitters and postsynaptic gephyrin clusters, The Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol.26, issue.3, pp.275-289, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/cne.10148

J. Gomeza, K. Ohno, and H. Betz, Glycine transporter isoforms in the mammalian central nervous system: structures, functions and therapeutic promises, Curr. Opin. Drug Discov. Devel, vol.6, pp.675-682, 2003.

G. Grenningloh, A. Rienitz, B. Schmitt, C. Methfessel, M. Zensen et al., The strychnine-binding subunit of the glycine receptor shows homology with nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, Nature, vol.328, issue.6127, pp.215-220, 1987.
DOI : 10.1038/328215a0

J. Grudzinska, R. Schemm, S. Haeger, A. Nicke, G. Schmalzing et al., The ?? Subunit Determines the Ligand Binding Properties of Synaptic Glycine Receptors, Neuron, vol.45, issue.5, pp.727-739, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2005.01.028

I. Gurevich, M. T. Englander, M. Adlersberg, N. B. Siegal, and C. Schmauss, Modulation of serotonin 2C receptor editing by sustained changes in serotonergic neurotransmission, J. Neurosci, vol.22, pp.10529-10532, 2002.

S. Haverkamp, U. Muller, H. U. Zeilhofer, R. J. Harvey, and H. Wassle, Diversity of glycine receptors in the mouse retina: Localization of the ??2 subunit, Journal of Comparative Neurology, vol.15, issue.4, pp.399-411, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/cne.20267

T. Honjo, H. Nagaoka, R. Shinkura, and M. Muramatsu, AID to overcome the limitations of genomic information, Nature Immunology, vol.171, issue.7, pp.655-661, 2005.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0303971101

M. V. Jones, W. , and G. L. , Desensitized states prolong GABAA channel responses to brief agonist pulses, Neuron, vol.15, issue.1, pp.181-191, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0896-6273(95)90075-6

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/0896-6273(95)90075-6

A. Kirchner, J. Breustedt, B. Rosche, U. F. Heinemann, and V. Schmieden, Effects of Taurine and Glycine on Epileptiform Activity Induced by Removal of Mg2+ in Combined Rat Entorhinal Cortex-Hippocampal Slices, Epilepsia, vol.64, issue.9, pp.1145-1152, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1528-1157.2003.01603.x

J. Kirsch, D. Langosch, P. Prior, U. Z. Littauer, B. Schmitt et al., The 93-kDa glycine receptorassociated protein binds to tubulin, 1991.

R. Lape, D. Colquhoun, and L. G. Sivilotti, On the nature of partial agonism in the nicotinic receptor superfamily, Nature, vol.114, pp.722-727, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/nature07139

B. Laube, A. Kuryatov, J. Kuhse, and H. Betz, Glycine-glutamate interactions at the NMDA receptor: role of cysteine residues, FEBS Letters, vol.259, issue.3, pp.331-334, 1993.
DOI : 10.1016/0014-5793(93)80412-N

H. Lee, C. X. Chen, Y. J. Liu, E. Aizenman, and K. Kandler, KCC2 expression in immature rat cortical neurons is sufficient to switch the polarity of GABA responses, European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.93, issue.9, pp.2593-2599, 2005.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1460-9568.2005.04084.x

P. Legendre, A reluctant gating mode of glycine receptor channels determines the time course of inhibitory miniature synaptic events in zebrafish hindbrain neurons, 1998.

P. Legendre, The glycinergic inhibitory synapse, Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences, vol.58, issue.5, pp.760-793, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/PL00000899

S. Levi, S. M. Logan, K. R. Tovar, C. , and A. M. , Gephyrin Is Critical for Glycine Receptor Clustering But Not for the Formation of Functional GABAergic Synapses in Hippocampal Neurons, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.24, issue.1, pp.207-217, 2004.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1661-03.2004

T. M. Lewis, L. G. Sivilotti, D. Colquhoun, R. M. Gardiner, R. Schoepfer et al., oocytes, The Journal of Physiology, vol.23, issue.1, pp.25-40, 1998.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1469-7793.1998.025bu.x

C. Lohmann, A. Finski, and T. Bonhoeffer, Local calcium transients regulate the spontaneous motility of dendritic filopodia, Nature Neuroscience, vol.119, issue.3, pp.305-312, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/0165-0270(86)90115-9

F. Loup, H. G. Wieser, Y. Yonekawa, A. Aguzzi, and J. M. Fritschy, Selective alterations in GABAA receptor subtypes in human temporal lobe epilepsy, J. Neurosci, vol.20, pp.5401-5419, 2000.

T. Lu, M. E. Rubio, and L. O. Trussell, Glycinergic Transmission Shaped by the Corelease of GABA in a Mammalian Auditory Synapse, Neuron, vol.57, issue.4, pp.524-535, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuron.2007.12.010

J. W. Lynch, Native glycine receptor subtypes and their physiological roles, Neuropharmacology, vol.56, issue.1, pp.303-309, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neuropharm.2008.07.034

M. L. Malosio, G. Grenningloh, J. Kuhse, V. Schmieden, B. Schmitt et al., Alternative splicing generates two variants of the alpha 1 subunit of the inhibitory glycine receptor, J. Biol. Chem, vol.266, pp.2048-2053, 1991.

J. M. Mangin, M. Baloul, D. C. Prado, B. Rogister, J. M. Rigo et al., homo-oligomeric glycine receptor impairs a proper synaptic functioning, The Journal of Physiology, vol.98, issue.2, pp.369-386, 2003.
DOI : 10.1113/jphysiol.2003.052142

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00079733

J. Meier and R. Grantyn, A Gephyrin-Related Mechanism Restraining Glycine Receptor Anchoring at GABAergic Synapses, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.24, issue.6, pp.1398-1405, 2004.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.4260-03.2004

URL : http://edoc.mdc-berlin.de/9339/1/9339oa.pdf

J. Meier, C. Meunier-durmort, C. Forest, A. Triller, and C. Vannier, Formation of glycine receptor clusters and their accumulation at synapses, 2000.

J. Meier, C. Vannier, A. Serge, A. Triller, C. et al., Fast and reversible trapping of surface glycine receptors by gephyrin, Nature Neuroscience, vol.4, issue.3, pp.253-260, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/85099

J. C. Meier, C. Henneberger, I. Melnick, C. Racca, R. J. Harvey et al., RNA editing produces glycine receptor ??3P185L, resulting in high agonist potency, Nature Neuroscience, vol.176, issue.6, pp.736-744, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/0006-8993(89)90144-3

G. Meyer, J. Kirsch, H. Betz, and D. Langosch, Identification of a gephyrin binding motif on the glycine receptor ?? subunit, Neuron, vol.15, issue.3, pp.563-572, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0896-6273(95)90145-0

P. S. Miller, R. J. Harvey, and T. G. Smart, 2 subunit splice variants, British Journal of Pharmacology, vol.9, issue.1, pp.19-26, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.bjp.0705875

I. Mody, Distinguishing between GABA(A) receptors responsible for tonic and phasic conductances, Neurochemical Research, vol.26, issue.8/9, pp.907-913, 2001.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1012376215967

I. Mody, P. , and R. A. , Diversity of inhibitory neurotransmission through GABAA receptors, Trends in Neurosciences, vol.27, issue.9, pp.569-575, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tins.2004.07.002

A. J. Moorhouse, P. Jacques, P. H. Barry, and P. R. Schofi-eld, The startle disease mutation Q266H, in the second transmembrane domain of the human glycine receptor, impairs channel gating, Mol. Pharmacol, vol.55, pp.386-395, 1999.

N. Mukhtasimova, W. Y. Lee, H. L. Wang, and S. M. Sine, Detection and trapping of intermediate states priming nicotinic receptor channel opening, Nature, vol.27, issue.7245, pp.451-454, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nature07923

E. Müller, W. Bakkar, P. Legendre, R. Bergeron, M. et al., Site and mechanism of glycine release at glutamatergic synapse in mouse hippocampus. (Program No. 358, 2007.

E. Muller, C. H. Le, A. Triller, and P. Legendre, Developmental dissociation of presynaptic inhibitory neurotransmitter and postsynaptic receptor clustering in the hypoglossal nucleus, Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, vol.32, issue.3, pp.254-273, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.mcn.2006.04.007

A. Nakae, T. Tanaka, K. Miyake, M. Hase, and T. Mashimo, Comparing methods of detection and quantitation of RNA editing of rat glycine receptor alpha3, Int. J. Biol. Sci, vol.4, pp.397-405, 2008.

Z. Nikolic, B. Laube, R. G. Weber, P. Lichter, P. Kioschis et al., The human glycine receptor subunit alpha3. Glra3 gene structure , chromosomal localization, and functional characterization of alternative transcripts, J. Biol. Chem, vol.273, 1998.

E. Palma, M. Amici, F. Sobrero, G. Spinelli, A. S. Di et al., Anomalous levels of Cl ? transporters, Article, vol.2, issue.23 8, 2006.

. Legendre, GlyR posttranscriptional processing in the hippocampal subiculum from temporal lobe epilepsy patients make GABA excitatory, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci

A. J. Plested, P. J. Groot-kormelink, D. Colquhoun, and L. G. Sivilotti, Single-channel study of the spasmodic mutation alpha1A52S in recombinant rat glycine receptors, 2007.

C. Rivera, J. Voipio, J. Thomas-crusells, H. Li, Z. Emri et al., Mechanism of Activity-Dependent Downregulation of the Neuron-Specific K-Cl Cotransporter KCC2, Journal of Neuroscience, vol.24, issue.19, pp.4683-4691, 2004.
DOI : 10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5265-03.2004

M. J. Roux and S. Supplisson, Neuronal and Glial Glycine Transporters Have Different Stoichiometries, Neuron, vol.25, issue.2, pp.373-383, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0896-6273(00)80901-0

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00140070

P. H. Seeburg and J. Hartner, Regulation of ion channel/neurotransmitter receptor function by RNA editing, Current Opinion in Neurobiology, vol.13, issue.3, pp.279-283, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0959-4388(03)00062-X

J. Simon, H. Wakimoto, N. Fujita, M. Lalande, and E. A. Barnard, Analysis of the Set of GABAA Receptor Genes in the Human Genome, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.279, issue.40, pp.41422-41435, 2004.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M401354200

W. Song, S. C. Chattipakorn, and L. L. Mcmahon, Glycine-Gated Chloride Channels Depress Synaptic Transmission in Rat Hippocampus, Journal of Neurophysiology, vol.95, issue.4, 2006.
DOI : 10.1152/jn.00386.2005

F. Stief, W. Zuschratter, K. Hartmann, D. Schmitz, and A. Draguhn, Enhanced synaptic excitation?inhibition ratio in hippocampal interneurons of rats with temporal lobe epilepsy, European Journal of Neuroscience, vol.228, issue.2, pp.519-528, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-510X(65)90122-X

S. Supplisson and M. J. Roux, Why glycine transporters have different stoichiometries, FEBS Letters, vol.20, issue.1, pp.93-101, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0014-5793(02)03251-9

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00145152

N. Unwin, A. Miyazawa, J. Li, and Y. Fujiyoshi, Activation of the Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptor Involves a Switch in Conformation of the ?? Subunits, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.319, issue.5, pp.1165-1176, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-2836(02)00381-9

W. Wisden, D. Cope, T. Klausberger, B. Hauer, S. T. Sinkkonen et al., Ectopic expression of the GABAA receptor ??6 subunit in hippocampal pyramidal neurons produces extrasynaptic receptors and an increased tonic inhibition, Neuropharmacology, vol.43, issue.4, pp.530-549, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0028-3908(02)00151-X

L. H. Zhang, N. Gong, D. Fei, L. Xu, and T. L. Xu, Glycine Uptake Regulates Hippocampal Network Activity via Glycine Receptor-Mediated Tonic Inhibition, Neuropsychopharmacology, vol.15, issue.3, pp.701-711, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/S0306-4522(98)00158-4