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Female urinary incontinence, from pregnancy to menopause: a review of epidemiological and pathophysiological findings.: Female urinary incontinence, a review

Abstract : Hypotheses that might explain urinary incontinence during pregnancy and after childbirth have been examined. The prevalence of urinary incontinence reaches a maximum during pregnancy and decreases after childbirth. Cesarean delivery is associated with lower rates of stress incontinence than vaginal delivery. Women delivered by cesarean section differ from women who had a vaginal delivery through pre-existing characteristics associated with the incontinence risk, producing a selection bias. The only randomized trial (intention of vaginal delivery vs. elective caesarean section) was not conclusive. The suspected etiological factors consist of congenital elements, obesity, aging, pregnancy and vaginal delivery. They are likely to have an effect at different times and on different portions of the urethral sphincter complex. Unfortunately, there exist no cohorts facilitating description of the natural history of female urinary incontinence. Given the small amount of usable data available, it is not possible to draw any conclusions concerning the possible long-term protective effects of cesarean section.
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Xavier Fritel, Virginie Ringa, Emeline Quiboeuf, Arnaud Fauconnier. Female urinary incontinence, from pregnancy to menopause: a review of epidemiological and pathophysiological findings.: Female urinary incontinence, a review. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica, Wiley, 2012, 91 (8), pp.901-910. ⟨10.1111/j.1600-0412.2012.01419.x⟩. ⟨inserm-00728885⟩

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