S. Ruchat, C. Elks, R. Loos, M. Vohl, and S. Weisnagel, Association between insulin secretion, insulin sensitivity and type 2 diabetes susceptibility variants identified in genome-wide association studies, Acta Diabetologica, vol.33, issue.suppl 1, pp.217-226, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00592-008-0080-5

J. Hill, Understanding and Addressing the Epidemic of Obesity: An Energy Balance Perspective, Endocrine Reviews, vol.27, issue.7, pp.750-761, 2006.
DOI : 10.1210/er.2006-0032

J. Nicholson, E. Holmes, and I. Wilson, Opinion: Gut microorganisms, mammalian metabolism and personalized health care, Nature Reviews Microbiology, vol.58, issue.5, pp.431-438, 2005.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0320(19990201)35:2<162::AID-CYTO8>3.0.CO;2-U

P. Eckburg, E. Bik, C. Bernstein, E. Purdom, and L. Dethlefsen, Diversity of the Human Intestinal Microbial Flora, Science, vol.308, issue.5728, pp.1635-1638, 2005.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1110591

R. Ley, P. Turnbaugh, S. Klein, and J. Gordon, Microbial ecology: Human gut microbes associated with obesity, Nature, vol.308, issue.7122, pp.1022-1023, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/4441022a

R. Ley, F. Backhed, P. Turnbaugh, C. Lozupone, and R. Knight, Obesity alters gut microbial ecology, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.102, issue.31, pp.11070-11075, 2005.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0504978102

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1176910

G. Hotamisligil, Inflammation and metabolic disorders, Nature, vol.314, issue.7121, pp.860-867, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nature05485

S. Shoelson, J. Lee, and A. Goldfine, Inflammation and insulin resistance, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.116, issue.7, pp.1793-1801, 2006.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI29069

P. Cani, J. Amar, M. Iglesias, M. Poggi, and C. Knauf, Metabolic Endotoxemia Initiates Obesity and Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, vol.56, issue.7, pp.1761-1772, 2007.
DOI : 10.2337/db06-1491

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

F. Backhed, H. Ding, T. Wang, L. Hooper, and G. Koh, The gut microbiota as an environmental factor that regulates fat storage, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.101, issue.44, pp.15718-15723, 2004.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0407076101

V. Velagapudi, R. Hezaveh, C. Reigstad, P. Gopalacharyulu, and L. Yetukuri, The gut microbiota modulates host energy and lipid metabolism in mice, The Journal of Lipid Research, vol.51, issue.5, pp.1101-1112, 2010.
DOI : 10.1194/jlr.M002774

F. Backhed, J. Manchester, C. Semenkovich, and J. Gordon, Mechanisms underlying the resistance to diet-induced obesity in germ-free mice, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.104, issue.3, pp.979-984, 2007.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0605374104

B. Samuel, A. Shaito, T. Motoike, F. Rey, and F. Backhed, Effects of the gut microbiota on host adiposity are modulated by the short-chain fatty-acid binding G protein-coupled receptor, Gpr41, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.105, issue.43, pp.16767-16772, 2008.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0808567105

J. Gebbers and J. Laissue, Bacterial Translocation in the Normal Human Appendix Parallels the Development of the Local Immune System, Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol.43, issue.1, pp.337-343, 2004.
DOI : 10.1196/annals.1309.015

H. Smith, R. Fisher, M. Everett, A. Thomas, and R. Bollinger, Comparative anatomy and phylogenetic distribution of the mammalian cecal appendix, Journal of Evolutionary Biology, vol.14, issue.10, pp.1984-1999, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1420-9101.2009.01809.x

P. Turnbaugh, M. Hamady, T. Yatsunenko, B. Cantarel, and A. Duncan, A core gut microbiome in obese and lean twins, Nature, vol.8, issue.7228, pp.480-484, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nature07540

P. Turnbaugh, R. Ley, M. Hamady, C. Fraser-liggett, and R. Knight, The Human Microbiome Project, Nature, vol.112, issue.7164, pp.804-810, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/nature06244

M. Serino, C. Chabo, and R. Burcelin, Intestinal MicrobiOMICS to Define Health and Disease in Human and Mice, Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, vol.13, issue.5, pp.746-758, 2012.
DOI : 10.2174/138920112799857567

J. Amar, M. Serino, C. Lange, C. Chabo, and J. Iacovoni, Involvement of tissue bacteria in the onset of diabetes in humans: evidence for a concept, Diabetologia, vol.104, issue.12, pp.3055-3061, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-011-2329-8

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00801269

F. Backhed, R. Ley, J. Sonnenburg, D. Peterson, and J. Gordon, Host-Bacterial Mutualism in the Human Intestine, Science, vol.307, issue.5717, pp.1915-1920, 2005.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1104816

R. Burcelin, E. Luche, M. Serino, and J. Amar, The gut microbiota ecology: a new opportunity for the treatment of metabolic diseases ?, Frontiers in Bioscience, vol.14, issue.1, pp.5107-5117, 2009.
DOI : 10.2741/3589

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00410160

M. Serino, E. Luche, C. Chabo, J. Amar, and R. Burcelin, Intestinal microflora and metabolic diseases, Diabetes & Metabolism, vol.35, issue.4, pp.262-272, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.diabet.2009.03.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00420690

A. Vrieze, F. Holleman, E. Zoetendal, W. De-vos, and J. Hoekstra, The environment within: how gut microbiota may influence metabolism and body composition, Diabetologia, vol.57, issue.4, pp.606-613, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-010-1662-7

J. Nicholson, I. Wilson, and J. Lindon, Pharmacometabonomics as an effector for personalized medicine, Pharmacogenomics, vol.12, issue.1, pp.103-111, 2011.
DOI : 10.2217/pgs.10.157

M. Serino, E. Luche, S. Gres, A. Baylac, and M. Berge, Metabolic adaptation to a high-fat diet is associated with a change in the gut microbiota, Gut, vol.61, issue.4, pp.543-553, 2012.
DOI : 10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301012

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00726182

J. Amar, R. Burcelin, J. Ruidavets, P. Cani, and J. Fauvel, Energy intake is associated with endotoxemia in apparently healthy men, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.87, pp.1219-1223, 2008.

J. Fernandez-real, P. Del-pulgar, S. Luche, E. Moreno-navarrete, J. Waget et al., CD14 Modulates Inflammation-Driven Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, vol.60, issue.8, pp.2179-2186, 2011.
DOI : 10.2337/db10-1210

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00615242

J. Moreno-navarrete and J. Fernandez-real, Antimicrobial-Sensing Proteins in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes: The buffering efficiency hypothesis, Diabetes Care, vol.34, issue.Supplement_2, pp.335-341, 2011.
DOI : 10.2337/dc11-s238

J. Fernandez-real and J. Pickup, Innate immunity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, Diabetologia, vol.27, issue.2, pp.273-278, 2011.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-011-2387-y

C. Gubern, A. Lopez-bermejo, J. Biarnes, J. Vendrell, and W. Ricart, Natural Antibiotics and Insulin Sensitivity: The Role of Bactericidal/Permeability-Increasing Protein, Diabetes, vol.55, issue.1, pp.216-224, 2006.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.55.01.06.db05-1108

J. Fernandez-real, M. Broch, W. Ricart, R. Casamitjana, and C. Gutierrez, Plasma levels of the soluble fraction of tumor necrosis factor receptor 2 and insulin resistance, Diabetes, vol.47, issue.11, pp.1757-1762, 1998.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.47.11.1757

G. Caraux and S. Pinloche, PermutMatrix: a graphical environment to arrange gene expression profiles in optimal linear order, Bioinformatics, vol.21, issue.7, pp.1280-1281, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/bioinformatics/bti141

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/lirmm-00105307

R. Simon, Design and analysis of DNA microarray investigations, 2003.

J. Rawlings, S. Pantula, and D. Dickey, Applied regression analysis: a research tool, 1998.
DOI : 10.1007/b98890

L. Ericksson, E. Johansson, N. Kettaneh-wold, and S. Wold, Multi-and megavariate data analysis principles and applications, Umetrics Academ, 2001.

R. Johnson and D. Wichern, Applied Multivariate Statistical Analysis., Biometrics, vol.54, issue.3, 2007.
DOI : 10.2307/2533879

J. Lep and P. Milauer, Multivariate analysis of ecological data using CANOCO, 2003.