K. Anstey, N. Cherbuin, M. Budge, and J. Young, Metabolic abnormality defined as having two or more of the following components: 1) triglycerides ?169 mmol/l or lipidlowering medication, 2) systolic blood pressure ?130 mmHg, diastolic blood pressure ?85 mmHg, or medications, 3) glucose ?5.6 mmol/l or medications, and 4) HDL cholesterol <1.04 mmol/l for men and <1.29 mmol/l for women Body mass index in midlife and late-life as a risk factor for dementia: a meta-analysis of prospective studies, * Figures are number (percentages) unless otherwise stated, pp.426-437, 2011.

D. Gustafson, Adiposity indices and dementia, The Lancet Neurology, vol.5, issue.8, pp.713-720, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S1474-4422(06)70526-9

W. Xu, A. Atti, M. Gatz, N. Pedersen, B. Johansson et al., Midlife overweight and obesity increase late-life dementia risk: A population-based twin study, Neurology, vol.76, issue.18, pp.1568-1574, 2011.
DOI : 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182190d09

D. Gustafson, E. Rothenberg, K. Blennow, B. Steen, and I. Skoog, An 18-Year Follow-up of Overweight and Risk of Alzheimer Disease, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.163, issue.13, pp.1524-1528, 2003.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.163.13.1524

R. Whitmer, E. Gunderson, E. Barrett-connor, C. Quesenberry, J. Yaffe et al., Obesity in middle age and future risk of dementia: a 27 year longitudinal population based study, BMJ, vol.330, issue.7504, p.1360, 2005.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.38446.466238.E0

M. Beydoun, H. Beydoun, and Y. Wang, Obesity and central obesity as risk factors for incident dementia and its subtypes: a systematic review and meta-analysis, Obesity Reviews, vol.42, issue.3, 2008.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1532-5415.2002.50507.x

J. Luchsinger, B. Patel, M. Tang, N. Schupf, and R. Mayeux, Measures of Adiposity and Dementia Risk in Elderly Persons, Archives of Neurology, vol.64, issue.3, pp.392-398, 2007.
DOI : 10.1001/archneur.64.3.392

M. Cournot, J. Marquie, and D. Ansiau, Relation between body mass index and cognitive function in healthy middle-aged men and women, Neurology, vol.67, issue.7, pp.1208-1214, 2006.
DOI : 10.1212/01.wnl.0000238082.13860.50

S. Sabia, M. Kivimaki, M. Shipley, M. Marmot, and A. Singh-manoux, Body mass index over the adult life course and cognition in late midlife: the Whitehall II Cohort Study, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol.89, issue.2, pp.601-607, 2009.
DOI : 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26482

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00353140

M. Elias, P. Elias, L. Sullivan, P. Wolf, D. Agostino et al., Obesity, diabetes and cognitive deficit: The Framingham Heart Study, Neurobiology of Aging, vol.26, issue.1, pp.11-16, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.neurobiolaging.2005.08.019

R. Whitmer, D. Gustafson, E. Barrett-connor, M. Haan, E. Gunderson et al., Central obesity and increased risk of dementia more than three decades later, Neurology, vol.71, issue.14, pp.1057-1064, 2008.
DOI : 10.1212/01.wnl.0000306313.89165.ef

R. Wildman, P. Muntner, and K. Reynolds, The Obese Without Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Clustering and the Normal Weight With Cardiometabolic Risk Factor Clustering, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.168, issue.15, pp.1617-1624, 1999.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.168.15.1617

A. Karelis, M. Brochu, and R. Rabasa-lhoret, Can we identify metabolically healthy but obese individuals (MHO)? Diabetes Metab, pp.569-572, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/s1262-3636(07)70156-8

URL : http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/summary?doi=

A. Must, J. Spadano, E. Coakley, A. Field, G. Colditz et al., The Disease Burden Associated With Overweight and Obesity, JAMA, vol.282, issue.16, pp.1523-1529, 1999.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.282.16.1523

G. Whitlock, S. Lewington, and P. Sherliker, Body-mass index and cause-specific mortality in 900 000 adults: collaborative analyses of 57 prospective studies, Lancet, vol.373, pp.1083-1096, 2009.

A. Karelis, M. Faraj, and J. Bastard, The Metabolically Healthy but Obese Individual Presents a Favorable Inflammation Profile, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.90, issue.7, pp.4145-4150, 2005.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.2005-0482

G. Calori, G. Lattuada, and L. Piemonti, Prevalence, Metabolic Features, and Prognosis of Metabolically Healthy Obese Italian Individuals: The Cremona Study, Diabetes Care, vol.34, issue.1, 2011.
DOI : 10.2337/dc10-0665

J. Meigs, P. Wilson, and C. Fox, Body Mass Index, Metabolic Syndrome, and Risk of Type 2 Diabetes or Cardiovascular Disease, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.91, issue.8, pp.2906-2912, 2006.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.2006-0594

J. Ardern and C. , Are metabolically normal but obese individuals at lower risk for all-cause mortality? Diabetes Care, pp.2297-2299, 2009.

J. Arnlov, E. Ingelsson, J. Sundstrom, and L. Lind, Impact of Body Mass Index and the Metabolic Syndrome on the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease and Death in Middle-Aged Men, Circulation, vol.121, issue.2, pp.230-236, 2010.
DOI : 10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.109.887521

L. Lind, A. Siegbahn, E. Ingelsson, J. Sundstrom, and J. Arnlov, A Detailed Cardiovascular Characterization of Obesity Without the Metabolic Syndrome, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol.31, issue.8, pp.27-34, 2011.
DOI : 10.1161/ATVBAHA.110.221572

M. Marmot and E. Brunner, Cohort Profile: The Whitehall II study, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol.34, issue.2, pp.251-256, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/ije/dyh372

G. Cooper, Methods for Determining the Amount of Glucose in Blood, CRC Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences, vol.54, issue.4, pp.101-145, 1973.
DOI : 10.2337/diab.19.9.644

A. Heim, AH 4 group test of general Intelligence, 1970.

J. Borkowski, A. Benton, and O. Spreen, Word fluency and brain damage, Neuropsychologia, vol.5, issue.2, pp.135-140, 1967.
DOI : 10.1016/0028-3932(67)90015-2

R. Wilson, S. Leurgans, P. Boyle, J. Schneider, and D. Bennett, Neurodegenerative basis of age-related cognitive decline, Neurology, vol.75, issue.12, pp.1070-1078, 2010.
DOI : 10.1212/WNL.0b013e3181f39adc

N. Laird and J. Ware, Random-Effects Models for Longitudinal Data, Biometrics, vol.38, issue.4, 1982.
DOI : 10.2307/2529876

N. Stefan, K. Kantartzis, and J. Machann, Identification and Characterization of Metabolically Benign Obesity in Humans, Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.168, issue.15, pp.1609-1616, 2008.
DOI : 10.1001/archinte.168.15.1609

N. Ruderman, D. Chisholm, X. Pi-sunyer, and S. Schneider, The metabolically obese, normal-weight individual revisited, Diabetes, vol.47, issue.5, pp.699-713, 1998.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.47.5.699

A. Ho, J. Stein, and X. Hua, A commonly carried allele of the obesity-related FTO gene is associated with reduced brain volume in the healthy elderly, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.107, issue.18, 2010.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0910878107

M. Gillman, D. Barker, and D. Bier, Meeting Report on the 3rd International Congress on Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD), Pediatric Research, vol.58, issue.5, Part 1, pp.625-629, 2007.
DOI : 10.1203/pdr.0b013e3180459fcd

M. Sturman, C. De-leon, J. Bienias, M. Morris, R. Wilson et al., Body mass index and cognitive decline in a biracial community population, Neurology, vol.70, issue.5, pp.360-367, 2007.
DOI : 10.1212/01.wnl.0000285081.04409.bb

J. Mcevoy, M. Blaha, and K. Nasir, ???Metabolically benign??? obesity: A wolf in sheep's clothing, Atherosclerosis, vol.217, issue.1, pp.74-76, 2011.
DOI : 10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2011.02.039

A. Abdullah, R. Wolfe, and J. Stoelwinder, The number of years lived with obesity and the risk of all-cause and cause-specific mortality, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol.40, issue.4, pp.985-996, 2011.
DOI : 10.1093/ije/dyr018

H. Ulmer, C. Kelleher, G. Diem, and H. Concin, Long-term tracking of cardiovascular risk factors among men and women in a large population-based health system The Vorarlberg Health Monitoring & Promotion Programme, European Heart Journal, vol.24, issue.11, pp.1004-1013, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0195-668X(03)00170-2