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Anti-RANKL therapy for bone tumours: Basic, pre-clinical and clinical evidences

Dominique Heymann 1, *
* Corresponding author
1 UMR 957
Physiopathologie de la Résorption Osseuse et Thérapie des Tumeurs Osseuses Primitives, CHU Nantes - Centre hospitalier universitaire de Nantes
Abstract : Bone remodelling is related to coordinated phases of bone resorption and bone apposition allowing the maintenance of bone integrity, the phosphocalcic homoeostasis all along the life and consequently the bone adaptation to mechanical constraints or/and to endocrine fluctuations. Unfortunately, bone is a frequent site of tumour development originated from bone cell lineages (primary bone tumours: bone sarcomas) or from nonosseous origins (bone metastases: carcinomas). These tumour cells disrupt the balance between osteoblast and osteoclast activities resulting in a disturbed bone remodelling weakening the bone tissue, in a strongly altered bone microenvironment and consequently facilitating the tumour growth. At the early stage of tumour development, osteoclast differentiation and recruitment of mature osteoclasts are strongly activated resulting in a strong bone matrix degradation and release of numerous growth factors initially stored into this organic/calcified matrix. In turn these soluble factors stimulate the proliferation of tumour cells and exacerbate their migration and their ability to initiate metastases. Because Receptor Activator of NFκB Ligand (RANKL) is absolutely required for in vivo osteoclastogenesis, its role in the bone tumour growth has been immediately pointed out and has consequently allowed the development of new targeted therapies of these malignant diseases. The present review summarises the role of RANKL in the bone tumour microenvironment, the most recent pre-clinical and clinical evidences of its targeting in bone metastases and bone sarcomas. The following sections position RANKL targeted therapy among the other anti-resorptive therapies available and underline the future directions which are currently under investigations.
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Dominique Heymann. Anti-RANKL therapy for bone tumours: Basic, pre-clinical and clinical evidences. Journal of Bone Oncology, Amsterdam : Elsevier, c2012-, 2012, 1 (1), pp.2-11. ⟨10.1016/j.jbo.2012.03.001⟩. ⟨inserm-00719461⟩

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