M. Wicha, S. Liu, and G. Dontu, Cancer Stem Cells: An Old Idea--A Paradigm Shift, Cancer Research, vol.66, issue.4, pp.1883-1890, 2006.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-3153

S. Liu, G. Dontu, I. Mantle, S. Patel, and N. Ahn, Hedgehog Signaling and Bmi-1 Regulate Self-renewal of Normal and Malignant Human Mammary Stem Cells, Cancer Research, vol.66, issue.12, pp.6063-6071, 2006.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-06-0054

G. Dontu, K. Jackson, E. Mcnicholas, M. Kawamura, and W. Abdallah, Role of Notch signaling in cell-fate determination of human mammary stem/progenitor cells, Breast Cancer Research, vol.36, issue.6, pp.605-615, 2004.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2184.36.s.1.6.x

M. Smalley and T. Dale, Wnt signalling in mammalian development and cancer, Cancer and Metastasis Reviews, vol.18, issue.2, pp.215-230, 1999.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1006369223282

D. Cristofano, A. Pesce, B. Cordon-cardo, C. Pandolfi, and P. , PTEN is essential for embryonic development and tumour suppression, Nat Genet, vol.19, pp.348-355, 1998.

G. Perez-tenorio and O. Stal, Activation of AKT/PKB in breast cancer predicts a worse outcome among endocrine treated patients, British Journal of Cancer, vol.275, issue.4, pp.540-545, 2002.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.bjc.6600126

N. Shoman, S. Klassen, A. Mcfadden, M. Bickis, and E. Torlakovic, Reduced PTEN expression predicts relapse in patients with breast carcinoma treated by tamoxifen, Modern Pathology, vol.8, issue.2, pp.250-259, 2005.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1092089

Y. Nagata, K. Lan, X. Zhou, M. Tan, and F. Esteva, PTEN activation contributes to tumor inhibition by trastuzumab, and loss of PTEN predicts trastuzumab resistance in patients, Cancer Cell, vol.6, issue.2, pp.117-127, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccr.2004.06.022

M. Schmitz, G. Grignard, C. Margue, W. Dippel, and C. Capesius, Complete loss of PTEN expression as a possible early prognostic marker for prostate cancer metastasis, International Journal of Cancer, vol.57, issue.6, pp.1284-1292, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/ijc.22359

S. Wang, A. Garcia, M. Wu, D. Lawson, and O. Witte, Pten deletion leads to the expansion of a prostatic stem/progenitor cell subpopulation and tumor initiation, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.103, issue.5, pp.1480-1485, 2006.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0510652103

J. Zhang, J. Grindley, T. Yin, S. Jayasinghe, and X. He, PTEN maintains haematopoietic stem cells and acts in lineage choice and leukaemia prevention, Nature, vol.197, issue.7092, pp.518-522, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nature04747

O. Yilmaz, R. Valdez, B. Theisen, W. Guo, and D. Ferguson, Pten dependence distinguishes haematopoietic stem cells from leukaemia-initiating cells, Nature, vol.421, issue.7092, pp.475-482, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nature04703

N. Shafee, C. Smith, S. Wei, Y. Kim, and G. Mills, Cancer Stem Cells Contribute to Cisplatin Resistance in Brca1/p53-Mediated Mouse Mammary Tumors, Cancer Research, vol.68, issue.9, pp.3243-3250, 2008.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5480

D. Hambardzumyan, M. Squatrito, and E. Holland, Radiation resistance and stem-like cells in brain tumors, Cancer Cell, vol.10, issue.6, pp.454-456, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccr.2006.11.008

Z. Han, L. Hong, Y. Han, K. Wu, and S. Han, Phospho Akt mediates multidrug resistance of gastric cancer cells through regulation of P-gp, Bcl-2 and Bax, J Exp Clin Cancer Res, vol.26, pp.261-268, 2007.

M. Frattini, P. Saletti, E. Romagnani, V. Martin, and F. Molinari, PTEN loss of expression predicts cetuximab efficacy in metastatic colorectal cancer patients, British Journal of Cancer, vol.24, issue.8, pp.1139-1145, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ctrv.2003.10.003

K. Berns, H. Horlings, B. Hennessy, M. Madiredjo, and E. Hijmans, A Functional Genetic Approach Identifies the PI3K Pathway as a Major Determinant of Trastuzumab Resistance in Breast Cancer, Cancer Cell, vol.12, issue.4, pp.395-402, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccr.2007.08.030

G. Dontu, W. Abdallah, J. Foley, K. Jackson, and M. Clarke, In vitro propagation and transcriptional profiling of human mammary stem/progenitor cells, Genes & Development, vol.17, issue.10, pp.1253-1270, 2003.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.1061803

C. Ginestier, M. Hur, E. Charafe-jauffret, F. Monville, and J. Dutcher, ALDH1 Is a Marker of Normal and Malignant Human Mammary Stem Cells and a Predictor of Poor Clinical Outcome, Cell Stem Cell, vol.1, issue.5, pp.555-567, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.stem.2007.08.014

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01431968

D. Hambardzumyan, O. Becher, M. Rosenblum, P. Pandolfi, and K. Manova-todorova, PI3K pathway regulates survival of cancer stem cells residing in the perivascular niche following radiation in medulloblastoma in vivo, Genes & Development, vol.22, issue.4, pp.436-448, 2008.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.1627008

X. He, T. Yin, J. Grindley, Q. Tian, and T. Sato, PTEN-deficient intestinal stem cells initiate intestinal polyposis, Nature Genetics, vol.281, issue.2, pp.189-198, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/ng1928

F. Vazquez, S. Ramaswamy, N. Nakamura, and W. Sellers, Phosphorylation of the PTEN Tail Regulates Protein Stability and Function, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.20, issue.14, pp.5010-5018, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.20.14.5010-5018.2000

Y. Li and J. Rosen, Stem/Progenitor Cells in Mouse Mammary Gland Development and Breast Cancer, Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, vol.132, issue.Suppl 1, pp.17-24, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s10911-005-2537-2

E. Charafe-jauffret, C. Ginestier, F. Iovino, J. Wicinski, and N. Cervera, Breast Cancer Cell Lines Contain Functional Cancer Stem Cells with Metastatic Capacity and a Distinct Molecular Signature, Cancer Research, vol.69, issue.4, pp.1302-1313, 2009.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2741

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01431954

D. Proia and C. Kuperwasser, Reconstruction of human mammary tissues in a mouse model, Nature Protocols, vol.65, issue.1, pp.206-214, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nprot.2006.31

T. Hideshima, L. Catley, H. Yasui, K. Ishitsuka, and N. Raje, Perifosine, an oral bioactive novel alkylphospholipid, inhibits Akt and induces in vitro and in vivo cytotoxicity in human multiple myeloma cells, Blood, vol.107, issue.10, pp.4053-4062, 2006.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2005-08-3434

X. Leleu, X. Jia, J. Runnels, H. Ngo, and A. Moreau, The Akt pathway regulates survival and homing in Waldenstrom macroglobulinemia, Blood, vol.110, issue.13, pp.4417-4426, 2007.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2007-05-092098

M. Pap and G. Cooper, Role of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 in the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt Cell Survival Pathway, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.273, issue.32, pp.19929-19932, 1998.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.273.32.19929

C. Yost, M. Torres, J. Miller, E. Huang, and D. Kimelman, The axis-inducing activity, stability, and subcellular distribution of beta-catenin is regulated in Xenopus embryos by glycogen synthase kinase 3., Genes & Development, vol.10, issue.12, pp.1443-1454, 1996.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.10.12.1443

N. Sato, L. Meijer, L. Skaltsounis, P. Greengard, and A. Brivanlou, Maintenance of pluripotency in human and mouse embryonic stem cells through activation of Wnt signaling by a pharmacological GSK-3-specific inhibitor, Nature Medicine, vol.10, issue.1, pp.55-63, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/nm979

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00020135

H. Korkaya, A. Paulson, F. Iovino, and M. Wicha, HER2 regulates the mammary stem/progenitor cell population driving tumorigenesis and invasion, Oncogene, vol.15, issue.47, pp.6120-6130, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/onc.2008.207

A. Trumpp and O. Wiestler, Mechanisms of disease: cancer stem cellstargeting the evil twin, Nat Clin Pract Oncol, vol.5, pp.337-347, 2008.

H. Korkaya and M. Wicha, Selective Targeting of Cancer Stem Cells, BioDrugs, vol.64, issue.12, pp.299-310, 2007.
DOI : 10.2165/00063030-200721050-00002

K. Podsypanina, L. Ellenson, A. Nemes, J. Gu, and M. Tamura, Mutation of Pten/Mmac1 in mice causes neoplasia in multiple organ systems, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.96, issue.4, pp.1563-1568, 1999.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.96.4.1563

K. Lloyd and M. Dennis, Cowden's Disease, Annals of Internal Medicine, vol.58, issue.1, pp.136-142, 1963.
DOI : 10.7326/0003-4819-58-1-136

L. Saal, S. Gruvberger-saal, C. Persson, K. Lovgren, and M. Jumppanen, Recurrent gross mutations of the PTEN tumor suppressor gene in breast cancers with deficient DSB repair, Nature Genetics, vol.46, issue.1, pp.102-107, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/ng.2007.39

K. Naka, M. Ohmura, and A. Hirao, Regulation of the self-renewal ability of tissue stem cells by tumor-related genes, Cancer Biomarkers, vol.3, issue.4-5, pp.193-201, 2007.
DOI : 10.3233/CBM-2007-34-504

K. Brennan and A. Brown, Wnt Proteins in Mammary Development and Cancer, Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia, vol.9, issue.2, pp.119-131, 2004.
DOI : 10.1023/B:JOMG.0000037157.94207.33

G. Dontu, M. Hajj, W. Abdallah, M. Clarke, and M. Wicha, Stem cells in normal breast development and breast cancer, Cell Proliferation, vol.63, issue.s1, pp.59-72, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/nm0901-1028

G. Arpino, R. Laucirica, and R. Elledge, Premalignant and In Situ Breast Disease: Biology and Clinical Implications, Annals of Internal Medicine, vol.143, issue.6, pp.446-457, 2005.
DOI : 10.7326/0003-4819-143-6-200509200-00009

S. Bose, A. Crane, H. Hibshoosh, M. Mansukhani, and L. Sandweis, Reduced expression of PTEN correlates with breast cancer progression, Human Pathology, vol.33, issue.4, pp.405-409, 2002.
DOI : 10.1053/hupa.2002.124721

J. Zhou, J. Wulfkuhle, H. Zhang, P. Gu, and Y. Yang, Activation of the PTEN/mTOR/STAT3 pathway in breast cancer stem-like cells is required for viability and maintenance, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.104, issue.41, pp.16158-16163, 2007.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0702596104

X. Wang, P. Yue, C. Chan, K. Ye, and T. Ueda, Inhibition of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Induces Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase-Dependent and Mnk-Mediated Eukaryotic Translation Initiation Factor 4E Phosphorylation, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.27, issue.21, pp.7405-7413, 2007.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.00760-07

X. Wan, B. Harkavy, N. Shen, P. Grohar, and L. Helman, Rapamycin induces feedback activation of Akt signaling through an IGF-1R-dependent mechanism, Oncogene, vol.274, issue.13, pp.1932-1940, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.onc.1209990

O. Reilly, K. Rojo, F. She, Q. Solit, D. Mills et al., mTOR Inhibition Induces Upstream Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Signaling and Activates Akt, Cancer Research, vol.66, issue.3, pp.1500-1508, 2006.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-2925

S. Sun, L. Rosenberg, X. Wang, Z. Zhou, and P. Yue, Activation of Akt and eIF4E Survival Pathways by Rapamycin-Mediated Mammalian Target of Rapamycin Inhibition, Cancer Research, vol.65, issue.16, pp.7052-7058, 2005.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-0917

J. Stingl, P. Eirew, I. Ricketson, M. Shackleton, and F. Vaillant, Purification and unique properties of mammary epithelial stem cells, Nature, vol.96, pp.993-997, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nature04496

X. Jin, D. Gossett, S. Wang, D. Yang, and Y. Cao, Inhibition of AKT survival pathway by a small molecule inhibitor in human endometrial cancer cells, British Journal of Cancer, vol.57, issue.10, pp.1808-1812, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1098-2744(200002)27:2<110::AID-MC6>3.0.CO;2-E

M. Monick, A. Carter, P. Robeff, D. Flaherty, and M. Peterson, Lipopolysaccharide Activates Akt in Human Alveolar Macrophages Resulting in Nuclear Accumulation and Transcriptional Activity of ??-Catenin, The Journal of Immunology, vol.166, issue.7, pp.4713-4720, 2001.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.166.7.4713

S. Munemitsu, I. Albert, B. Rubinfeld, and P. Polakis, Deletion of an amino-terminal sequence beta-catenin in vivo and promotes hyperphosporylation of the adenomatous polyposis coli tumor suppressor protein., Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.16, issue.8, pp.4088-4094, 1996.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.16.8.4088

A. Hollestelle, F. Elstrodt, J. Nagel, W. Kallemeijn, and M. Schutte, Phosphatidylinositol-3-OH Kinase or RAS Pathway Mutations in Human Breast Cancer Cell Lines, Molecular Cancer Research, vol.5, issue.2, pp.195-201, 2007.
DOI : 10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-06-0263

R. Neve, K. Chin, J. Fridlyand, J. Yeh, and F. Baehner, A collection of breast cancer cell lines for the study of functionally distinct cancer subtypes, Cancer Cell, vol.10, issue.6, pp.515-527, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccr.2006.10.008

K. Stemke-hale, A. Gonzalez-angulo, A. Lluch, R. Neve, and W. Kuo, An Integrative Genomic and Proteomic Analysis of PIK3CA, PTEN, and AKT Mutations in Breast Cancer, Cancer Research, vol.68, issue.15, pp.6084-6091, 2008.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-6854

Y. Li, B. Welm, K. Podsypanina, S. Huang, and M. Chamorro, Evidence that transgenes encoding components of the Wnt signaling pathway preferentially induce mammary cancers from progenitor cells, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.100, issue.26, pp.15853-15858, 2003.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.2136825100

W. Woodward, M. Chen, F. Behbod, M. Alfaro, and T. Buchholz, WNT/beta-catenin mediates radiation resistance of mouse mammary progenitor cells, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.104, issue.2, pp.618-623, 2007.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0606599104

S. Ma, T. Lee, B. Zheng, K. Chan, and X. Guan, CD133+ HCC cancer stem cells confer chemoresistance by preferential expression of the Akt/PKB survival pathway, Oncogene, vol.63, issue.12, pp.1749-1758, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/ijc.22476

X. Li, M. Lewis, J. Huang, C. Gutierrez, and C. Osborne, Intrinsic Resistance of Tumorigenic Breast Cancer Cells to Chemotherapy, JNCI Journal of the National Cancer Institute, vol.100, issue.9, pp.672-679, 2008.
DOI : 10.1093/jnci/djn123