N. Abry, . Henquin, ). Cracowski, J. C. Agir-À-dom-(f-putod, J. C. Borel-;-f-caron et al., Centre MGEN Ste Feyre

F. :. Paris, (. J. Chu-la-pitié-salpêtrière, T. Gonzalez-bermejo, C. Similowski, . Straus et al., JP Janssens). Centralised biological analysis centre, issue.7

C. D. Mathers and D. Loncar, Projections of global mortality and burden of disease from 2002 to 2030, PLoS Med, vol.3, p.442, 2006.

. Anon, Long term domiciliary oxygen therapy in chronic hypoxic cor pulmonale complicating chronic bronchitis and emphysema. Report of the Medical Research Council Working Party, Lancet, vol.1, pp.681-687, 1981.

N. J. Cano, C. Pichard, and H. Roth, C-reactive protein and body mass index predict outcome in end-stage respiratory failure, Chest, vol.126, pp.540-546, 2004.

E. Chailleux, J. P. Laaban, and D. Veale, Prognostic value of nutritional depletion in patients with COPD treated by long-term oxygen therapy: data from the Antadir observatory, Chest, vol.123, pp.1460-1466, 2003.

A. M. Schols, R. Broekhuizen, and C. A. Weling-scheepers, Body composition and mortality in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.82, pp.53-62, 2005.

J. Vestbo, E. Prescott, and T. Almdal, Body mass, fat-free body mass, and prognosis in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease from a random population sample: findings from the Copenhagen City Heart Study, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.173, pp.79-83, 2006.

I. M. Ferreira, D. Brooks, and Y. Lacasse, Nutritional supplementation for stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Cochrane Database Syst Rev, issue.2, p.998, 2005.

L. Nici, C. Donner, and E. Wouters, European Respiratory Society statement on pulmonary rehabilitation, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.173, pp.1390-413, 2006.

M. C. Steiner, R. L. Barton, and S. J. Singh, Nutritional enhancement of exercise performance in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomised controlled trial, Thorax, vol.58, pp.745-51, 2003.

C. R. Van-wetering, M. Hoogendoorn, and S. J. Mol, Short-and long-term efficacy of a community-based COPD management programme in less advanced COPD: a randomised controlled trial, Thorax, vol.65, pp.7-13, 2010.

U. G. Kyle, L. Genton, and L. Karsegard, Single prediction equation for bioelectrical impedance analysis in adults aged 20e94 years, Nutrition, vol.17, pp.248-53, 2001.

Y. Schutz, U. U. Kyle, and C. Pichard, Fat-free mass index and fat mass index percentiles in caucasians aged 18-98, Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord, vol.26, pp.953-60, 2002.

N. J. Cano, H. Roth, and I. Court-ortune, Nutritional depletion in patients on long-term oxygen therapy and/or home mechanical ventilation, Eur Respir J, vol.20, pp.30-37, 2002.

R. Broekhuizen, E. C. Creutzberg, and C. A. Weling-scheepers, Optimizing oral nutritional drink supplementation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Br J Nutr, vol.93, pp.965-71, 2005.

M. A. Vermeeren, E. F. Wouters, and L. H. Nelissen, Acute effects of different nutritional supplements on symptoms and functional capacity in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.73, pp.295-301, 2001.

T. Troosters, R. Gosselink, and M. Decramer, Six minute walking distance in healthy elderly subjects, Eur Respir J, vol.14, pp.270-274, 1999.

A. Vermeulen, L. Verdonck, and J. M. Kaufman, A critical evaluation of simple methods for the estimation of free testosterone in serum, J Clin Endocrinol Metab, vol.84, pp.3666-3668, 1999.

J. Bourbeau, F. Maltais, and M. Rouleau, French-Canadian version of the chronic respiratory and st george's respiratory questionnaires: an assessment of their psychometric properties in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Can Respir J, vol.11, pp.480-486, 2004.

M. Carone, G. Bertolotti, and F. Anchisi, Analysis of factors that characterize health impairment in patients with chronic respiratory failure. Quality of life in chronic respiratory failure group, Eur Respir J, vol.13, pp.1293-300, 1999.

C. E. Weekes, P. W. Emery, and M. Elia, Dietary counselling and food fortification in stable COPD: a randomised trial, Thorax, vol.64, pp.326-357, 2009.

R. Casaburi, S. Bhasin, and L. Cosentino, Effects of testosterone and resistance training in men with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.170, pp.870-878, 2004.

E. C. Creutzberg, E. F. Wouters, and R. Mostert, A role for anabolic steroids in the rehabilitation of patients with COPD? A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial, Chest, vol.124, pp.1733-1775, 2003.

A. M. Schols, J. Slangen, and L. Volovics, Weight loss is a reversible factor in the prognosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, Am J Respir Crit Care Med, vol.157, pp.1791-1798, 1998.

F. Maltais, J. Bourbeau, and S. Shapiro, Effects of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a randomized trial, Ann Intern Med, vol.149, pp.869-78, 2008.

B. Celli, C. Cote, and J. Marin, The body-mass index, airflow obstruction, dyspnea, and exercise capacity index in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, N Engl J Med, vol.350, pp.1005-1017, 2004.

A. Fishman, F. Martinez, and K. Naunheim, A randomized trial comparing lungvolume-reduction surgery with medical therapy for severe emphysema, N Engl J Med, vol.348, pp.2059-73, 2003.

P. D. Semple, G. H. Beastall, and W. S. Watson, Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction in respiratory hypoxia, Thorax, vol.36, pp.605-614, 1981.

G. A. Wittert, I. M. Chapman, and M. T. Haren, Oral testosterone supplementation increases muscle and decreases fat mass in healthy elderly males with low-normal gonadal status, J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci, vol.58, pp.618-643, 2003.

P. M. Calverley, J. A. Anderson, and B. Celli, Salmeterol and fluticasone propionate and survival in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, N Engl J Med, vol.356, pp.775-89, 2007.

D. P. Tashkin, B. Celli, and S. Senn, A 4-year trial of tiotropium in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, N Engl J Med, vol.359, pp.1543-1547, 2008.

W. J. Evans, J. E. Morley, and J. Argiles, Cachexia: a new definition, Clin Nutr, vol.27, pp.793-802, 2008.

K. Sugawara, H. Takahashi, and C. Kasai, Effects of nutritional supplementation combined with low-intensity exercise in malnourished patients with COPD, Respir Med, vol.104, pp.1883-1892, 2010.

R. R. Wolfe, Optimal nutrition, exercise, and hormonal therapy promote muscle anabolism in the elderly, J Am Coll Surg, vol.202, pp.176-80, 2006.

S. Basaria, A. D. Coviello, and T. G. Travison, Adverse events associated with testosterone administration, N Engl J Med, vol.363, pp.109-131, 2010.