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[Behavioral disorders in Parkinson's disease: from pathophysiology to the mastery of dopaminergic treatment].

Abstract : INTRODUCTION: Behavioral changes in Parkinson's disease are complex and their pathophysiology is not yet fully understood. The dopaminergic system seems to play a major role and most of the behavioral disorders in Parkinson's disease can be classified into either hypodopaminergic if related to the disease itself or hyperdopaminergic if related to dopaminergic treatment. STATE OF THE ART: Subthalamic stimulation, which enables withdrawal of dopaminergic medication at an advanced stage in the disease, provides a model for the study of certain nonmotor, dopamine-sensitive symptoms. Such a study has shown that apathy, which is the most frequent behavioral problem in Parkinson's disease, is part of a much broader hypodopaminergic behavioral syndrome which also includes anxiety and depression. Nonmotor fluctuations--essential fluctuations in the patient's psychological state--are an expression of mesolimbic denervation, as shown in positron emission tomography. Drug-induced sensitization of the denervated mesolimbic system accounts for hyperdopaminergic behavioral problems that encompass impulse control disorders that can be alternatively classified as behavioral addictions. The association of impulse control disorders and addiction to the dopaminergic medication has been called dopamine dysregulation syndrome. While L-dopa is the most effective treatment for motor symptoms, dopamine agonists are more effective in improving the nonmotor levodopa-sensitive symptoms. On the other hand, L-dopa induces more motor complications and dopamine agonist more behavioral side effects. There is increasing data and awareness that patients' quality of life appears to be dictated by hypo- and hyperdopaminergic psychological symptoms stemming from mesolimbic denervation and dopaminergic treatment rather than by motor symptoms and motor complications related to nigrostriatal denervation and dopaminergic treatment. PERSPECTIVES: Better management requires knowledge of the clinical syndromes of hyper- and hypodopaminergic behaviors and nonmotor fluctuations, a better understanding of their underlying mechanisms and the development of new evaluation tools for these nonmotor symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: The neurologist who strives to gain mastery of dopaminergic treatment needs to fine tune the dosage of levodopa and dopamine agonists on an individual basis, depending on the presence of motor and nonmotor signs respectively.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, February 8, 2012 - 3:21:34 PM
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Stéphane Thobois, Claire Ardouin, Emmanuelle Schmitt, Eugénie Lhommée, Hélène Klinger, et al.. [Behavioral disorders in Parkinson's disease: from pathophysiology to the mastery of dopaminergic treatment].. Revue Neurologique, Elsevier Masson, 2010, 166 (10), pp.816-21. ⟨10.1016/j.neurol.2010.07.006⟩. ⟨inserm-00667867⟩

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