Immunologic aspects of patients with disseminated bacille Calmette-Guerin disease in north-west of Iran.

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Adverse reactions induced by BCG vaccination are rare, disseminated mycobacterial BCG infection in particular, which is often fatal and results from impaired immunity. The aim of this study is to determine the nature of the immunodeficiences in patients with disseminated BCG infection in northwest region of Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Through 2 years all infants with BCG adenitis or other complications of this vaccine that had suspicious BCG infection were referred to children's hospital and health centers of Tabriz. Evaluation of immune system and in some cases genetic survey was performed in infants with evidence of histopathologic demonstration of acid-fast bacilli. Then frequency of infants who had disseminated BCG infection with immunodeficiency was defined. RESULTS: From 48 selected infants with complications of BCG vaccine in the range of 2 to 62 months, 28 infants (58.3%) were male and 20 infants (41.7%) were female. Disseminated BCG infection was diagnosed in 11 cases, almost all of whom had immunodeficiency as follows: Seven cases had severe combined immunodeficiency and one cases had chronic granulomatous disease. MSMD in two cases and IL12 R deficiency in another one was diagnosed. Overall, the mortality rate was 72.8% (8 cases) which 7 cases of them were SCID and another one CGD Consanguineous was found in more than half (7 cases) of patients and family history of disseminated BCG infection or immunodeficiency was found in nearly one third (3 cases) of patients. DISCUSSION: BCG vaccine is administered world wide to prevent tuberculosis and is considered to have excellent safety profile. However in some immunodeficient patients it can cause severe and fatal complications, like in our region, where all cases of disseminated BCG infection with severe immunodeficiency died. CONCLUSION: BCG vaccination is necessary in some countries such as Iran, so it seems that development of a more safer vaccine and change of vaccine program in the families with history of inherited immunodeficiency can be identifies such high risk infants and prophylaxis of severe complications or dead in such patients.
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Italian Journal of Pediatrics, BioMed Central, 2009, 35 (1), pp.42. 〈10.1186/1824-7288-35-42〉
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Mahnaz Sadeghi-Shanbestari, Khalil Ansarin, Seyed Hudieh Maljaei, Mandana Rafeey, Zakaria Pezeshki, et al.. Immunologic aspects of patients with disseminated bacille Calmette-Guerin disease in north-west of Iran.. Italian Journal of Pediatrics, BioMed Central, 2009, 35 (1), pp.42. 〈10.1186/1824-7288-35-42〉. 〈inserm-00663546〉

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