M. Devesa and F. Pujol, Hepatitis B virus genetic diversity in Latin America, Virus Research, vol.127, issue.2, pp.177-184, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.virusres.2007.01.004

M. Duarte, N. Cardona, F. Poblete, K. González, M. García et al., A comparative epidemiological study of hepatitis B and hepatitis D virus infections in Yanomami and Piaroa Amerindians of Amazonas State, Venezuela, Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol.318, issue.1, pp.924-933, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2010.02560.x

F. Hollinger and G. Sood, Occult hepatitis B virus infection: a covert operation, Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol.13, issue.Suppl. 1, pp.1-15, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01245.x

J. Lledó, C. Fernández, M. Gutiérrez, and S. Ocaña, Management of occult hepatitis B virus infection: An update for the clinician, World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.17, issue.12, pp.1563-1568, 2011.
DOI : 10.3748/wjg.v17.i12.1563

W. Owiredu, A. Kramvis, and M. Kew, Hepatitis B virus DNA in serum of healthy black African adults positive for hepatitis B surface antibody alone: possible association with recombination between genotypes A and D, Journal of Medical Virology, vol.17, issue.4, pp.441-454, 2001.
DOI : 10.1002/jmv.1070

S. Roman, Y. Tanaka, A. Khan, F. Kurbanov, H. Kato et al., Occult hepatitis B in the genotype H-infected Nahuas and Huichol native Mexican population, Journal of Medical Virology, vol.89, issue.9, pp.1527-1536, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/jmv.21846

M. Devesa, C. Loureiro, Y. Rivas, F. Monsalve, N. Cardona et al., Subgenotype diversity of hepatitis B virus American genotype F in Amerindians from Venezuela and the general population of Colombia, Journal of Medical Virology, vol.18, issue.1, pp.20-26, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/jmv.21024

C. Gutiérrez, M. Devesa, C. Loureiro, G. León, F. Liprandi et al., Molecular and serological evaluation of surface antigen negative hepatitis B virus infection in blood donors from Venezuela, Journal of Medical Virology, vol.41, issue.2, pp.200-207, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/jmv.20076

G. Minuk, D. Sun, J. Uhanova, M. Zhang, S. Caouette et al., Occult hepatitis B virus infection in a North American community-based population, Journal of Hepatology, vol.42, issue.4, pp.480-485, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jhep.2004.11.037

C. Martin, J. Welge, N. Shire, S. Rouster, M. Shata et al., Genomic variability associated with the presence of occult hepatitis B virus in HIV co-infected individuals, Journal of Viral Hepatitis, vol.71, issue.10, pp.588-597, 2010.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2893.2009.01214.x

M. Mphahlele, A. Lukhwareni, R. Burnett, L. Moropeng, and J. Ngobeni, High risk of occult hepatitis B virus infection in HIV-positive patients from South Africa, Journal of Clinical Virology, vol.35, issue.1, pp.14-20, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jcv.2005.04.003

J. Larrubia, Occult hepatitis B virus infection: A complex entity with relevant clinical implications, World Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.17, issue.12, pp.1529-1530, 2011.
DOI : 10.3748/wjg.v17.i12.1529

B. Reina-san-martin, A. Cosson, and P. Minoprio, Lymphocyte Polyclonal Activation: A Pitfall for Vaccine Design against Infectious Agents, Parasitology Today, vol.16, issue.2, pp.62-67, 2000.
DOI : 10.1016/S0169-4758(99)01591-4

G. Morsica, F. Ancarani, S. Bagaglio, M. Maracci, P. Cicconi et al., Occult hepatitis B virus infection in a Cohort of HIV-positive patients: Correlation with hepatitis C virus coinfection, virological and immunological features, Infection, vol.39, issue.5, pp.445-449, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s15010-008-8194-9

B. Pinarbasi, D. Onel, F. Cosan, F. Akyuz, N. Dirlik et al., Prevalence and virological features of occult hepatitis B virus infection in female sex workers who work uncontrolled in Turkey, Liver International, vol.29, issue.2, pp.227-230, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2008.01809.x

K. Weinberger, T. Bauer, S. Böhm, and W. Jilg, High genetic variability of the group-specific a-determinant of hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) and the corresponding fragment of the viral polymerase in chronic virus carriers lacking detectable HBsAg in serum, Journal of General Virology, vol.81, issue.5, pp.1165-1174, 2000.
DOI : 10.1099/0022-1317-81-5-1165

M. Pourkarim, P. Lemey, S. Amini-bavil-olyaee, L. Houspie, J. Verbeeck et al., Molecular characterization of hepatitis B virus strains circulating in Belgian patients co-infected with HIV and HBV: Overt and occult infection, Journal of Medical Virology, vol.89, issue.11, pp.1876-1884, 2011.
DOI : 10.1002/jmv.22174

I. Chemin and C. Trépo, Evolution of Hepatitis B and C serum markers: a still challenging issue, Liver International, vol.31, issue.(S, pp.905-907, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2011.02479.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00788311

Y. Shi, Y. Wu, W. Wei, W. Zhang, Y. J. Chen et al., Association between occult hepatitis B infection and the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma: a meta-analysis, Liver International, vol.62, issue.(Suppl. 1), 2001.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2011.02481.x

I. Chemin and C. Trépo, Clinical impact of occult HBV infections, Journal of Clinical Virology, vol.34, pp.15-21, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/S1386-6532(05)80005-8

J. Pereira, N. Gonçales, C. Silva, M. Lazarini, M. Pavan et al., HBV vaccination of HCV-infected patients with occult HBV infection and anti-HBc-positive blood donors, Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, vol.39, issue.4, pp.525-531, 2006.
DOI : 10.1590/S0100-879X2006000400013

. Cardona, Unusual presentation of hepatitis B serological markers in an Amerindian community of Venezuela with a majority of occult cases, Virology Journal, vol.8, issue.1, p.527, 2011.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1478-3231.2011.02479.x

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00657506