M. Asano, M. Toda, N. Sakaguchi, and S. Sakaguchi, Autoimmune disease as a consequence of developmental abnormality of a T cell subpopulation, Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.184, issue.2, pp.387-396, 1996.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.184.2.387

J. Fontenot, J. Dooley, A. Farr, and A. Rudensky, Developmental regulation of Foxp3 expression during ontogeny, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.105, issue.7, pp.901-906, 2005.
DOI : 10.1080/0891693031000116057

G. Darrasse-jeze, G. Marodon, B. Salomon, M. Catala, and D. Klatzmann, Ontogeny of CD4+CD25+ regulatory/suppressor T cells in human fetuses, Blood, vol.105, issue.12, pp.4715-4721, 2005.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2004-10-4051

C. Bennett, J. Christie, F. Ramsdell, M. Brunkow, and P. Ferguson, The immune dysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome (IPEX) is caused by mutations of FOXP3, Nat Genet, vol.27, pp.20-21, 2001.

S. Hori, T. Nomura, and S. Sakaguchi, Control of Regulatory T Cell Development by the Transcription Factor Foxp3, Science, vol.299, issue.5609, pp.1057-1061, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1079490

J. Kim, J. Rasmussen, and A. Rudensky, Regulatory T cells prevent catastrophic autoimmunity throughout the lifespan of mice, Nature Immunology, vol.167, issue.2, pp.191-197, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/ni1289

K. Lahl, C. Loddenkemper, C. Drouin, J. Freyer, and J. Arnason, regulatory T cells induces a scurfy-like disease, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.125, issue.1, pp.57-63, 2007.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1096472

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/pasteur-00161238

X. Zhou, S. Bailey-bucktrout, L. Jeker, C. Penaranda, and M. Martinez-llordella, Instability of the transcription factor Foxp3 leads to the generation of pathogenic memory T cells in vivo, Nature Immunology, vol.34, issue.9, pp.1000-1007, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/ni.1774

S. Josefowicz and A. Rudensky, Control of Regulatory T Cell Lineage Commitment and Maintenance, Immunity, vol.30, issue.5, pp.616-625, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2009.04.009

L. Molinero, Y. J. Gajewski, T. Abraham, C. Farrar, and M. , CARMA1 Controls an Early Checkpoint in the Thymic Development of FoxP3+ Regulatory T Cells, The Journal of Immunology, vol.182, issue.11, pp.6736-6743, 2009.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.0900498

M. Barnes, P. Krebs, N. Harris, C. Eidenschenk, and R. Gonzalez-quintial, Commitment to the Regulatory T Cell Lineage Requires CARMA1 in the Thymus but Not in the Periphery, PLoS Biology, vol.8, issue.3, p.51, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pbio.1000051.sg005

S. Koonpaew, S. Shen, L. Flowers, and W. Zhang, regulatory T cell development, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.161, issue.1, pp.119-129, 2006.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.20041538

M. Jordan, A. Boesteanu, A. Reed, A. Petrone, and A. Holenbeck, Thymic selection of CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells induced by an agonist selfpeptide, Nature Immunology, vol.180, issue.4, pp.301-306, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/86302

K. Kawahata, Y. Misaki, M. Yamauchi, S. Tsunekawa, and K. Setoguchi, Generation of CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells from Autoreactive T Cells Simultaneously with Their Negative Selection in the Thymus and from Nonautoreactive T Cells by Endogenous TCR Expression, The Journal of Immunology, vol.168, issue.9, pp.4399-4405, 2002.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.168.9.4399

H. Van-santen, C. Benoist, and D. Mathis, Number of T Reg Cells That Differentiate Does Not Increase upon Encounter of Agonist Ligand on Thymic Epithelial Cells, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.135, issue.10, pp.1221-1230, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-9822(99)80093-1

A. Liston, D. Gray, S. Lesage, A. Fletcher, and J. Wilson, in Thymic Expression, Clonal Deletion, and Organ-specific Autoimmunity, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.15, issue.8, pp.1015-1026, 2004.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.2002-021495

J. Bautista, C. Lio, S. Lathrop, K. Forbush, and Y. Liang, Intraclonal competition limits the fate determination of regulatory T cells in the thymus, Nature Immunology, vol.101, issue.6, pp.610-617, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/ni.1739

M. Leung, S. Shen, and J. Lafaille, cells is limited to small clonal sizes, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.206, issue.10, pp.2121-2130, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/ni1455

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2757883

S. Bensinger, P. Walsh, J. Zhang, M. Carroll, and R. Parsons, Distinct IL-2 Receptor Signaling Pattern in CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells, The Journal of Immunology, vol.172, issue.9, pp.5287-5296, 2004.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.172.9.5287

M. Burchill, Y. J. Vogtenhuber, C. Blazar, B. Farrar, and M. , IL-2 Receptor ??-Dependent STAT5 Activation Is Required for the Development of Foxp3+ Regulatory T Cells, The Journal of Immunology, vol.178, issue.1, pp.280-290, 2007.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.178.1.280

D. Soper, D. Kasprowicz, and S. Ziegler, IL-2R?? links IL-2R signaling with Foxp3 expression, European Journal of Immunology, vol.35, issue.7, pp.1817-1826, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.200737101

J. Fontenot, J. Rasmussen, M. Gavin, and A. Rudensky, A function for interleukin 2 in Foxp3-expressing regulatory T cells, Nature Immunology, vol.171, issue.11, pp.1142-1151, 2005.
DOI : 10.1186/gb-2004-5-10-r80

D. Cruz, L. Klein, and L. , Development and function of agonist-induced CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells in the absence of interleukin 2 signaling, Nature Immunology, vol.172, issue.11, pp.1152-1159, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.micinf.2004.02.020

H. Imamichi, I. Sereti, and H. Lane, IL-15 acts as a potent inducer of CD4+CD25hi cells expressing FOXP3, European Journal of Immunology, vol.31, issue.6, pp.1621-1630, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.200737607

Z. Yao, Y. Kanno, M. Kerenyi, G. Stephens, and L. Durant, Nonredundant roles for Stat5a/b in directly regulating Foxp3, Blood, vol.109, issue.10, pp.4368-4375, 2007.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2006-11-055756

M. Burchill, C. Goetz, M. Prlic, O. Neil, J. Harmon et al., Distinct Effects of STAT5 Activation on CD4+ and CD8+ T Cell Homeostasis: Development of CD4+CD25+ Regulatory T Cells versus CD8+ Memory T Cells, The Journal of Immunology, vol.171, issue.11, pp.5853-5864, 2003.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.171.11.5853

M. Burchill, Y. J. Vang, K. Moon, J. Chu, and H. , Linked T Cell Receptor and Cytokine Signaling Govern??the Development of the Regulatory T Cell Repertoire, Immunity, vol.28, issue.1, pp.112-121, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2007.11.022

C. Lio and C. Hsieh, A Two-Step Process for Thymic Regulatory T Cell Development, Immunity, vol.28, issue.1, pp.100-111, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2007.11.021

G. Marodon and B. Rocha, Generation of mature T cell populations in the thymus: CD4 or CD8 down-regulation occurs at different stages of thymocyte differentiation, European Journal of Immunology, vol.147, issue.1, pp.196-204, 1994.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.1830240131

S. Schallenberg, P. Tsai, J. Riewaldt, and K. Kretschmer, regulatory T cells in peripheral lymphoid organs of nonmanipulated mice, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.207, issue.7, pp.1393-1407, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nature06878

L. Lu, T. Thai, D. Calado, A. Chaudhry, and M. Kubo, Foxp3-Dependent MicroRNA155 Confers Competitive Fitness to Regulatory T Cells by Targeting SOCS1 Protein, Immunity, vol.30, issue.1, pp.80-91, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2008.11.010

B. Pillemer, H. Xu, T. Oriss, Z. Qi, and A. Ray, Deficient SOCS3 expression in CD4+CD25+FoxP3+ regulatory T cells and SOCS3-mediated suppression of Treg function, European Journal of Immunology, vol.92, issue.8, pp.2082-2089, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.200737193

A. Marson, K. Kretschmer, G. Frampton, E. Jacobsen, and J. Polansky, Foxp3 occupancy and regulation of key target genes during T-cell stimulation, Nature, vol.37, issue.7130, pp.931-935, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/nature05478

Y. Zheng, S. Josefowicz, A. Kas, T. Chu, and M. Gavin, Genome-wide analysis of Foxp3 target genes in developing and mature regulatory T cells, Nature, vol.103, issue.7130, pp.936-940, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/nature05563

Q. Tang, J. Adams, C. Penaranda, K. Melli, and E. Piaggio, Central Role of Defective Interleukin-2 Production in the Triggering of Islet Autoimmune Destruction, Immunity, vol.28, issue.5, pp.687-697, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2008.03.016

J. Czarneski, J. Rassa, and S. Ross, Mouse Mammary Tumor Virus and the Immune System, Immunologic Research, vol.27, issue.2-3, pp.469-479, 2003.
DOI : 10.1385/IR:27:2-3:469

J. Kappler, N. Roehm, and P. Marrack, T cell tolerance by clonal elimination in the thymus, Cell, vol.49, issue.2, pp.273-280, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0092-8674(87)90568-X

G. Marodon and B. Rocha, mice: implications for neonatal tolerance induction, International Immunology, vol.6, issue.12, pp.1899-1904, 1994.
DOI : 10.1093/intimm/6.12.1899

M. Papiernik, M. Do-carmo-leite-de-moraes, C. Pontoux, A. Joret, and B. Rocha, T cell deletion induced by chronic infection with mouse mammary tumor virus spares a CD25-positive, IL-10-producing T cell population with infectious capacity, J Immunol, vol.158, pp.4642-4653, 1997.

J. Ribot, P. Romagnoli, and J. Van-meerwijk, Agonist Ligands Expressed by Thymic Epithelium Enhance Positive Selection of Regulatory T Lymphocytes from Precursors with a Normally Diverse TCR Repertoire, The Journal of Immunology, vol.177, issue.2, pp.1101-1107, 2006.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.177.2.1101

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00140891

J. Lord, B. Mcintosh, P. Greenberg, and B. Nelson, The IL-2 Receptor Promotes Lymphocyte Proliferation and Induction of the c-myc, bcl-2, and bcl-x Genes Through the trans-Activation Domain of Stat5, The Journal of Immunology, vol.164, issue.5, pp.2533-2541, 2000.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.164.5.2533

I. Isomura, S. Palmer, R. Grumont, K. Bunting, and G. Hoyne, CD4 regulatory T cells, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.5, issue.13, pp.3001-3014, 2009.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.immunol.24.021605.090547