Downregulation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in skeletal muscle is associated with increased REDD1 expression in response to chronic hypoxia.

Abstract : Although it is well established that chronic hypoxia leads to an inexorable loss of skeletal muscle mass in healthy subjects, the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in this process are currently unknown. Skeletal muscle atrophy is also an important systemic consequence of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the role of hypoxemia in this regulation is still debated. Our general aim was to determine the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle mass after exposure to chronic hypoxia and to test the biological relevance of our findings into the clinical context of COPD. Expression of positive and negative regulators of skeletal muscle mass were explored 1) in the soleus muscle of rats exposed to severe hypoxia (6,300 m) for 3 wk and 2) in vastus lateralis muscle of nonhypoxemic and hypoxemic COPD patients. In rodents, we observed a marked inhibition of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway together with a strong increase in regulated in development and DNA damage response 1 (REDD1) expression and in its association with 14-3-3, a mechanism known to downregulate the mTOR pathway. Importantly, REDD1 overexpression in vivo was sufficient to cause skeletal muscle fiber atrophy in normoxia. Finally, the comparative analysis of skeletal muscle in hypoxemic vs. nonhypoxemic COPD patients confirms that hypoxia causes an inhibition of the mTOR signaling pathway. We thus identify REDD1 as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass during chronic hypoxia. Translation of this fundamental knowledge into the clinical investigation of COPD shows the interest to develop therapeutic strategies aimed at inhibiting REDD1.
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AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, American Physiological Society, 2010, 298 (6), pp.R1659-66. 〈10.1152/ajpregu.00550.2009〉
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François Favier, Frédéric Costes, Aurélia Defour, Régis Bonnefoy, Etienne Lefai, et al.. Downregulation of Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathway in skeletal muscle is associated with increased REDD1 expression in response to chronic hypoxia.. AJP - Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology, American Physiological Society, 2010, 298 (6), pp.R1659-66. 〈10.1152/ajpregu.00550.2009〉. 〈inserm-00593929〉

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