MR-guided transcranial brain HIFU in small animal models.

Abstract : Recent studies have demonstrated the feasibility of transcranial high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) therapy in the brain using adaptive focusing techniques. However, the complexity of the procedures imposes provision of accurate targeting, monitoring and control of this emerging therapeutic modality in order to ensure the safety of the treatment and avoid potential damaging effects of ultrasound on healthy tissues. For these purposes, a complete workflow and setup for HIFU treatment under magnetic resonance (MR) guidance is proposed and implemented in rats. For the first time, tissue displacements induced by the acoustic radiation force are detected in vivo in brain tissues and measured quantitatively using motion-sensitive MR sequences. Such a valuable target control prior to treatment assesses the quality of the focusing pattern in situ and enables us to estimate the acoustic intensity at focus. This MR-acoustic radiation force imaging is then correlated with conventional MR-thermometry sequences which are used to follow the temperature changes during the HIFU therapeutic session. Last, pre- and post-treatment magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) datasets are acquired and evaluated as a new potential way to non-invasively control the stiffness changes due to the presence of thermal necrosis. As a proof of concept, MR-guided HIFU is performed in vitro in turkey breast samples and in vivo in transcranial rat brain experiments. The experiments are conducted using a dedicated MR-compatible HIFU setup in a high-field MRI scanner (7 T). Results obtained on rats confirmed that both the MR localization of the US focal point and the pre- and post-HIFU measurement of the tissue stiffness, together with temperature control during HIFU are feasible and valuable techniques for efficient monitoring of HIFU in the brain. Brain elasticity appears to be more sensitive to the presence of oedema than to tissue necrosis.
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Physics in Medicine and Biology, IOP Publishing, 2010, 55 (2), pp.365-88. 〈10.1088/0031-9155/55/2/003〉
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Benoît Larrat, Mathieu Pernot, Jean-François Aubry, Ervisa Dervishi, Ralph Sinkus, et al.. MR-guided transcranial brain HIFU in small animal models.. Physics in Medicine and Biology, IOP Publishing, 2010, 55 (2), pp.365-88. 〈10.1088/0031-9155/55/2/003〉. 〈inserm-00542898〉

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