P. Kleihues, D. N. Louis, and B. W. Scheithauer, The WHO Classification of Tumors of the Nervous System, Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, vol.61, issue.3, pp.215-225, 2002.
DOI : 10.1093/jnen/61.3.215

J. L. Fisher, J. A. Schwartzbaum, M. Wrensch, and J. L. Wiemels, Epidemiology of Brain Tumors, Neurologic Clinics, vol.25, issue.4, pp.867-890, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ncl.2007.07.002

L. M. Deangelis, Brain Tumors, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.344, issue.2, pp.114-123, 2001.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJM200101113440207

R. Stupp, M. E. Hegi, and W. P. Mason, Effects of radiotherapy with concomitant and adjuvant temozolomide versus radiotherapy alone on survival in glioblastoma in a randomised phase III study: 5-year analysis of the EORTC-NCIC trial, The Lancet Oncology, vol.10, issue.5, pp.459-466, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/S1470-2045(09)70025-7

B. R. Tambuyzer, P. Ponsaerts, E. J. Nouwen, T. Calzascia, F. Masson et al., Microglia: gatekeepers of central nervous system immunology, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol.85, issue.3, pp.352-370, 2005.
DOI : 10.1189/jlb.0608385

J. Karman, C. Ling, M. Sandor, and Z. Fabry, Dendritic cells in the initiation of immune responses against central nervous system-derived antigens, Immunology Letters, vol.92, issue.1-2, pp.107-115, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.imlet.2003.10.017

M. Van-zwam, R. Huizinga, and M. Melief, Brain antigens in functionally distinct antigen-presenting cell populations in cervical lymph nodes in MS and EAE, Journal of Molecular Medicine, vol.44, issue.3, pp.273-286, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00109-008-0421-4

P. Mrass and W. Weninger, Immune cell migration as a means to control immune privilege: lessons from the CNS and tumors, Immunological Reviews, vol.99, issue.1, pp.195-212, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S1471-4906(03)00117-0

E. H. Wilson, W. Weninger, and C. A. Hunter, Trafficking of immune cells in the central nervous system, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.120, issue.5, pp.1368-1379, 2010.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI41911

D. C. Davies, Blood-brain barrier breakdown in septic encephalopathy and brain tumours*, Journal of Anatomy, vol.200, issue.6, pp.639-646, 2002.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1469-7580.2002.00065.x

G. Rascher, A. Fischmann, S. Kröger, F. Duffner, E. Grote et al., Extracellular matrix and the blood-brain barrier in glioblastoma multiforme: spatial segregation of tenascin and agrin, Acta Neuropathologica, vol.104, issue.1, pp.85-91, 2002.
DOI : 10.1007/s00401-002-0524-x

C. P. Marques, M. C. Cheeran, J. M. Palmquist, S. Hu, S. L. Urban et al., Prolonged Microglial Cell Activation and Lymphocyte Infiltration following Experimental Herpes Encephalitis, The Journal of Immunology, vol.181, issue.9, pp.6417-6426, 2008.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.181.9.6417

I. Bartholomäus, N. Kawakami, and F. Odoardi, Effector T cell interactions with meningeal vascular structures in nascent autoimmune CNS lesions, Nature, vol.95, issue.7269, pp.94-98, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nature08478

F. Masson, T. Calzascia, W. Di-berardino-besson, N. De-tribolet, P. Dietrich et al., Brain Microenvironment Promotes the Final Functional Maturation of Tumor-Specific Effector CD8+ T Cells, The Journal of Immunology, vol.179, issue.2, pp.845-853, 2007.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.179.2.845

H. Lauterbach, E. I. Zuniga, P. Truong, M. B. Oldstone, and D. B. Mcgavern, Adoptive immunotherapy induces CNS dendritic cell recruitment and antigen presentation during clearance of a persistent viral infection, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.67, issue.8, pp.1963-1975, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(02)01139-X

S. Saikali, T. Avril, and B. Collet, Expression of nine tumour antigens in a series of human glioblastoma multiforme: interest of EGFRvIII, IL-13R??2, gp100 and TRP-2 for immunotherapy, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.2, issue.2, pp.139-148, 2007.
DOI : 10.1007/s11060-006-9220-3

H. Okada, G. Kohanbash, and X. Zhu, Immunotherapeutic Approaches for Glioma, Critical Reviews??? in Immunology, vol.29, issue.1, pp.1-42, 2009.
DOI : 10.1615/CritRevImmunol.v29.i1.10

R. Ueda, K. L. Low, and X. Zhu, Spontaneous immune responses against glioma-associated antigens in a long term survivor with malignant glioma, Journal of Translational Medicine, vol.5, issue.1, 2007.
DOI : 10.1186/1479-5876-5-68

M. Mittelbronn, P. Simon, and C. Löffler, Elevated HLA-E levels in human glioblastomas but not in grade I to III astrocytomas correlate with infiltrating CD8+ cells, 14 Clinical and Developmental Immunology [21], pp.50-58, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2007.07.002

A. Waziri, B. Killory, A. T. Ogden, and I. , Preferential In Situ CD4+CD56+ T Cell Activation and Expansion within Human Glioblastoma, The Journal of Immunology, vol.180, issue.11, pp.7673-7680, 2008.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.180.11.7673

S. K. Jacobs, D. J. Wilson, P. L. Kornblith, and E. A. Grimm, Interleukin-2 and autologous lymphokine-activated killer cells in the treatment of malignant glioma, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.64, issue.5, pp.2101-2104, 1986.
DOI : 10.3171/jns.1986.64.5.0743

R. E. Merchant, A. J. Grant, L. H. Merchant, and H. F. Young, Adoptive immunotherapy for recurrent glioblastoma multiforme using lymphokine activated killer cells and recombinant interleukin-2, Cancer, vol.47, issue.4, pp.665-671, 1988.
DOI : 10.1002/1097-0142(19880815)62:4<665::AID-CNCR2820620403>3.0.CO;2-O

D. Barba, S. C. Saris, C. Holder, S. A. Rosenberg, and E. H. Oldfield, Intratumoral LAK cell and interleukin-2 therapy of human gliomas, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.70, issue.2, pp.175-182, 1989.
DOI : 10.3171/jns.1989.70.2.0175

K. O. Lillehei, D. H. Mitchell, S. D. Johnson, E. L. Mccleary, and C. A. Kruse, Long-Term Follow-up of Patients with Recurrent Malignant Gliomas Treated with Adjuvant Adoptive Immunotherapy, Neurosurgery, vol.28, issue.1, pp.16-23, 1991.
DOI : 10.1227/00006123-199101000-00003

E. W. Jeffes, I. , Y. B. Beamer, and S. Jacques, Therapy of recurrent high grade gliomas with surgery, and autologous mitogen activated IL-2 stimulated killer (MAK) Lymphocytes: I. Enhancement of MAK lytic activity and cytokine production by PHA and clinical use of PHA, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.123, issue.2, pp.141-155, 1993.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01053935

A. Blancher, F. Roubinet, and A. S. Grancher, Local immunotherapy of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme by intracerebral perfusion of interleukin-2 and LAK cells, European Cytokine Network, vol.4, issue.5, pp.331-341, 1993.

A. Boiardi, A. Silvani, and P. A. Ruffini, Loco-regional immunotherapy with recombinant interleukin-2 and adherent lymphokine-activated killer cells (A-LAK) in recurrent glioblastoma patients, Cancer Immunology Immunotherapy, vol.51, issue.3, pp.193-197, 1994.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01533386

R. L. Hayes, M. Koslow, and E. M. Hiesiger, Improved long term survival after intracavitary interleukin-2 and lymphokine-activated killer cells for adults with recurrent malignant glioma, Cancer, vol.53, issue.5, pp.840-852, 1995.
DOI : 10.1002/1097-0142(19950901)76:5<840::AID-CNCR2820760519>3.0.CO;2-R

S. K. Sankhla, J. S. Nadkarni, and S. N. Bhagwati, Adoptive immimotherapy using lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells and interleukin-2 for recurrent malignant primary brain tumors, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.27, issue.2, pp.133-140, 1995.

R. L. Hayes, E. Arbit, and M. Odaimi, Adoptive cellular immunotherapy for the treatment of malignant gliomas, Critical Reviews in Oncology/Hematology, vol.39, issue.1-2, pp.31-42, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S1040-8428(01)00122-6

R. O. Dillman, C. M. Duma, and P. M. Schiltz, Intracavitary Placement of Autologous Lymphokine-Activated Killer (LAK) Cells after Resection of Recurrent Glioblastoma, Journal of Immunotherapy, vol.27, issue.5, pp.398-404, 2004.
DOI : 10.1097/00002371-200409000-00009

R. O. Dillman, C. M. Duma, and R. A. Ellis, Intralesional Lymphokine-activated Killer Cells as Adjuvant Therapy for Primary Glioblastoma, Journal of Immunotherapy, vol.32, issue.9, pp.914-919, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/CJI.0b013e3181b2910f

T. Kitahara, O. Watanabe, and A. Yamaura, Establishment of interleukin 2 dependent cytotoxic T lymphocyte cell line specific for autologous brain tumor and its intracranial administration for therapy of the tumor, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.4, issue.4, pp.329-336, 1987.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00195603

H. Tsurushima, S. Q. Liu, and K. Tuboi, Reduction of End-stage Malignant Glioma by Injection with Autologous Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes, Japanese Journal of Cancer Research, vol.76, issue.5, pp.536-545, 1999.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1349-7006.1999.tb00781.x

K. Tsuboi, K. Saijo, and E. Ishikawa, Effects of local injection of ex vivo expanded autologous tumor-specific T lymphocytes in cases with recurrent malignant gliomas, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.9, issue.9, pp.3294-3302, 2003.

C. A. Kruse, L. Cepeda, B. Owens, S. D. Johnson, J. Stears et al., Treatment of recurrent glioma with intracavitary alloreactive cytotoxic T lymphocytes and interleukin-2, Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol.45, issue.2, pp.77-87, 1997.
DOI : 10.1007/s002620050405

K. B. Quattrocchi, C. H. Miller, and S. Cush, Pilot study of local autologous tumor infiltrating lymphocytes for the treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.45, issue.2, pp.141-157, 1999.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1006293606710

F. P. Holladay, T. Heitz-turner, W. L. Bayer, and G. W. Wood, Autologous tumor cell vaccination combined with adoptive cellular immunotherapy in patients with Grade III/IV astrocytoma, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.27, issue.2, pp.179-189, 1996.
DOI : 10.1007/BF00177482

G. E. Plautz, G. H. Barnett, and D. W. Miller, Systemic T cell adoptive immunotherapy of malignant gliomas, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.89, issue.1, pp.42-51, 1998.
DOI : 10.3171/jns.1998.89.1.0042

G. E. Plautz, D. W. Miller, and G. H. Barnett, T cell adoptive immunotherapy of newly diagnosed gliomas, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.6, issue.6, pp.2209-2218, 2000.

G. W. Wood, F. P. Holladay, T. Turner, Y. Wang, and M. Chiga, A pilot study of autologous cancer cell vaccination and cellular immunotherapy using anti-CD3 stimulated lymphocytes in patients with recurrent grade III/IV astrocytoma, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.48, issue.2, pp.113-120, 2000.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1006456421177

A. E. Sloan, R. Dansey, and L. Zamorano, Adoptive immunotherapy in patients with recurrent malignant glioma: preliminary results of using autologous whole-tumor vaccine plus granulocyte-macrophage colony???stimulating factor and adoptive transfer of anti-CD3???activated lymphocytes, Neurosurgical Focus, vol.9, issue.6, p.9, 2000.
DOI : 10.3171/foc.2000.9.6.10

G. Parmiani, C. Castelli, L. Pilla, M. Santinami, M. P. Colombo et al., Opposite immune functions of GM-CSF administered as vaccine adjuvant in cancer patients, Annals of Oncology, vol.18, issue.2, pp.226-232, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/annonc/mdl158

R. E. Sobol, H. Fakhrai, and D. Shawler, Interleukin-2 gene therapy in a patient with glioblastoma, Gene Therapy, vol.2, issue.2, pp.164-167, 1995.

T. Schneider, R. Gerhards, E. Kirches, and R. Firsching, Preliminary results of active specific immunization with modified tumor cell vaccine in glioblastoma multiforme, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.53, issue.1, pp.39-46, 2001.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1011856406683

D. W. Andrews, M. Resnicoff, and A. E. Flanders, Results of a Pilot Study Involving the Use of an Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide Directed Against the Insulin-Like Growth Factor Type I Receptor in Malignant Astrocytomas, Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol.19, issue.8, pp.2189-2200, 2001.
DOI : 10.1200/JCO.2001.19.8.2189

H. Okada, F. S. Lieberman, and H. D. Edington, Autologous glioma cell vaccine admixed with interleukin-4 gene transfected fibroblasts in the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma: Preliminary observations in a patient with a favorable Clinical and Developmental Immunology 15

H. H. Steiner, M. M. Bonsanto, and P. Beckhove, Antitumor Vaccination of Patients With Glioblastoma Multiforme: A Pilot Study to Assess Feasibility, Safety, and Clinical Benefit, Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol.22, issue.21, pp.4272-4281, 2004.
DOI : 10.1200/JCO.2004.09.038

I. F. Parney, L. Chang, M. A. Farr-jones, C. Hao, M. Smylie et al., Technical hurdles in a pilot clinical trial of combined B7-2 and GM-CSF immunogene therapy for glioblastomas and melanomas, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.7, issue.2, pp.71-80, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s11060-005-9058-0

E. Ishikawa, K. Tsuboi, and T. Yamamoto, Clinical trial of autologous formalin-fixed tumor vaccine for glioblastoma multiforme patients, Cancer Science, vol.174, issue.8, pp.1226-1233, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ijrobp.2004.04.046

A. Clavreul, N. Piard, and J. Tanguy, Autologous tumor cell vaccination plus infusion of GM-CSF by a programmable pump in the treatment of recurrent malignant gliomas, Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol.17, issue.7, pp.842-848, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jocn.2009.11.017

L. M. Liau, K. L. Black, and N. A. Martin, Treatment of a patient by vaccination with autologous dendritic cells pulsed with allogeneic major histocompatibility complex class Imatched tumor peptides. Case report, Neurosurgical Focus, vol.9, issue.6, p.8, 2000.

T. Kikuchi, Y. Akasaki, M. Irie, S. Homma, T. Abe et al., Results of a phase I clinical trial of vaccination of glioma patients with fusions of dendritic and glioma cells, Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol.50, issue.7, pp.337-344, 2001.
DOI : 10.1007/s002620100205

J. S. Yu, C. J. Wheeler, and P. M. Zeltzer, Vaccination of malignant glioma patients with peptide-pulsed dendritic cells elicits systemic cytotoxicity and intracranial T-cell infiltration, Cancer Research, vol.61, issue.3, pp.842-847, 2001.

R. Yamanaka, T. Abe, and N. Yajima, Vaccination of recurrent glioma patients with tumour lysate-pulsed dendritic cells elicits immune responses: results of a clinical phase I/II trial, British Journal of Cancer, vol.89, issue.7, pp.1172-1179, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.bjc.6601268

S. D. Vleeschouwer, F. Van-calenbergh, and P. , Transient local response and persistent tumor control in a child with recurrent malignant glioma: treatment with combination therapy including dendritic cell therapy, Journal of Neurosurgery: Pediatrics, vol.100, issue.5, pp.492-497, 2004.
DOI : 10.3171/ped.2004.100.5.0492

J. S. Yu, G. Liu, H. Ying, W. H. Yong, K. L. Black et al., Vaccination with Tumor Lysate-Pulsed Dendritic Cells Elicits Antigen-Specific, Cytotoxic T-Cells in Patients with Malignant Glioma, Cancer Research, vol.64, issue.14, pp.4973-4979, 2004.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-03-3505

D. A. Caruso, L. M. Orme, and A. M. Neale, Results of a phase 1 study utilizing monocyte-derived dendritic cells pulsed with tumor RNA in children and young adults with brain cancer, Neuro-Oncology, vol.6, issue.3, pp.236-246, 2004.
DOI : 10.1215/S1152851703000668

S. Rutkowski, S. De-vleeschouwer, and E. Kaempgen, Surgery and adjuvant dendritic cell-based tumour vaccination for patients with relapsed malignant glioma, a feasibility study, British Journal of Cancer, vol.61, issue.9, pp.1656-1662, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.bjc.6602195

C. J. Wheeler, A. Das, G. Liu, J. S. Yu, and K. L. Black, Clinical Responsiveness of Glioblastoma Multiforme to Chemotherapy after Vaccination, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.10, issue.16, pp.5316-5326, 2004.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-04-0497

T. Kikuchi, Y. Akasaki, and T. Abe, Vaccination of Glioma Patients with Fusions of Dendritic and Glioma Cells and Recombinant Human Interleukin 12, Journal of Immunotherapy, vol.27, issue.6, pp.452-459, 2004.
DOI : 10.1097/00002371-200411000-00005

L. M. Liau, R. M. Prins, and S. M. Kiertscher, Dendritic Cell Vaccination in Glioblastoma Patients Induces Systemic and Intracranial T-cell Responses Modulated by the Local Central Nervous System Tumor Microenvironment, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.11, issue.15, pp.5515-5525, 2005.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-0464

R. Yamanaka, J. Homma, and N. Yajima, Clinical Evaluation of Dendritic Cell Vaccination for Patients with Recurrent Glioma: Results of a Clinical Phase I/II Trial, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.11, issue.11, pp.4160-4167, 2005.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-05-0120

H. Okada, F. S. Lieberman, and K. A. Walter, Autologous glioma cell vaccine admixed with interleukin-4 gene transfected fibroblasts in the treatment of patients with malignant gliomas, Journal of Translational Medicine, vol.5, issue.1, 2007.
DOI : 10.1186/1479-5876-5-67

D. G. Walker, R. Laherty, F. H. Tomlinson, T. Chuah, and C. Schmidt, Results of a phase I dendritic cell vaccine trial for malignant astrocytoma: potential interaction with adjuvant chemotherapy, Journal of Clinical Neuroscience, vol.15, issue.2, pp.114-121, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jocn.2007.08.007

C. J. Wheeler, K. L. Black, and G. Liu, Vaccination Elicits Correlated Immune and Clinical Responses in Glioblastoma Multiforme Patients, Cancer Research, vol.68, issue.14, pp.5955-5964, 2008.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-07-5973

S. D. Vleeschouwer, S. Fieuws, and S. Rutkowski, Postoperative Adjuvant Dendritic Cell-Based Immunotherapy in Patients with Relapsed Glioblastoma Multiforme, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.14, issue.10, pp.3098-3104, 2008.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-07-4875

J. H. Sampson, G. E. Archer, and D. A. Mitchell, An epidermal growth factor receptor variant III-targeted vaccine is safe and immunogenic in patients with glioblastoma multiforme, Molecular Cancer Therapeutics, vol.8, issue.10, pp.2773-2779, 2009.
DOI : 10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-09-0124

H. Ardon, S. De-vleeschouwer, and F. Van-calenbergh, Adjuvant dendritic cell-based tumour vaccination for children with malignant brain tumours, Pediatric Blood & Cancer, vol.49, issue.4, pp.519-525, 2010.
DOI : 10.1002/pbc.22319

H. Ardon, S. Van-gool, and I. S. Lopes, Integration of autologous dendritic cell-based immunotherapy in the primary treatment for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme: a pilot study, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.24, issue.2, pp.261-272, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s11060-010-0131-y

S. A. Rosenberg, J. C. Yang, and N. P. Restifo, Cancer immunotherapy: moving beyond current vaccines, Nature Medicine, vol.8, issue.9, pp.909-915, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/1097-0215(20001015)88:2<232::AID-IJC14>3.3.CO;2-#

P. Y. Wen, D. R. Macdonald, and D. A. Reardon, Updated Response Assessment Criteria for High-Grade Gliomas: Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology Working Group, Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol.28, issue.11, pp.1963-1972, 2010.
DOI : 10.1200/JCO.2009.26.3541

R. Stupp and F. Roila, Malignant glioma: ESMO clinical recommendations for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up, Annals of Oncology, vol.20, pp.126-128, 2009.

L. Bauchet, H. Mathieu-daudé, and P. Fabbro-peray, Oncological patterns of care and outcome for 952 patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma in, Journal of Neurooncology. In press. Clinical and Developmental Immunology, 2004.

M. Weller, R. Stupp, and G. Reifenberger, MGMT promoter methylation in malignant gliomas: ready for personalized medicine?, Nature Reviews Neurology, vol.113, issue.1, pp.39-51, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nrneurol.2009.197

L. Karayan-tapon, V. Quillien, and J. Guilhot, Prognostic value of O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase status in glioblastoma patients, assessed by five different methods, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.16, issue.3, pp.311-322, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s11060-009-0031-1

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00435222

M. R. Graf, R. M. Prins, W. T. Hawkins, and R. E. Merchant, Irradiated tumor cell vaccine for treatment of an established glioma. I. Successful treatment with combined radiotherapy and cellular vaccination, Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol.51, issue.4, pp.179-189, 2002.

J. Kjaergaard, L. Wang, H. Kuriyama, S. Shu, and G. E. Plautz, Active immunotherapy for advanced intracranial murine tumors by using dendritic cell-tumor cell fusion vaccines, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.103, issue.1, pp.156-164, 2005.
DOI : 10.3171/jns.2005.103.1.0156

E. A. Reits, J. W. Hodge, and C. A. Herberts, Radiation modulates the peptide repertoire, enhances MHC class I expression, and induces successful antitumor immunotherapy, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.123, issue.5, pp.1259-1271, 2006.
DOI : 10.1126/science.274.5284.94

C. Banissi, F. Ghiringhelli, L. Chen, and A. F. Carpentier, Treg depletion with a low-dose metronomic temozolomide regimen in a rat glioma model, Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol.118, issue.6, pp.1627-1634, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s00262-009-0671-1

T. Kim, C. Kim, and J. Park, Immunological Factors Relating to the Antitumor Effect of Temozolomide Chemoimmunotherapy in a Murine Glioma Model, Clinical and Vaccine Immunology, vol.17, issue.1, pp.143-153, 2010.
DOI : 10.1128/CVI.00292-09

J. T. Jordan, W. Sun, S. F. Hussain, G. Deangulo, S. S. Prabhu et al., Preferential migration of regulatory T cells mediated by glioma-secreted chemokines can be blocked with chemotherapy, Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy, vol.36, issue.1, pp.123-131, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/s00262-007-0336-x

M. P. Gustafson, Y. Lin, and K. C. New, Systemic immune suppression in glioblastoma: the interplay between CD14+HLA-DRlo/neg monocytes, tumor factors, and dexamethasone, Neuro-Oncology, vol.12, issue.7
DOI : 10.1093/neuonc/noq001

S. A. Rosenberg and M. E. Dudley, Adoptive cell therapy for the treatment of patients with metastatic melanoma, Current Opinion in Immunology, vol.21, issue.2, pp.233-240, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.coi.2009.03.002

C. H. June, B. R. Blazar, and J. L. Riley, Engineering lymphocyte subsets: tools, trials and tribulations, Nature Reviews Immunology, vol.112, issue.10, pp.704-716, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nri2635

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3412112

W. W. Overwijk, M. R. Theoret, and S. E. Finkelstein, T Cells, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.6, issue.4, pp.569-580, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/00002371-199601000-00009

R. C. Anderson, J. B. Elder, and M. D. Brown, Changes in the Immunologic Phenotype of Human Malignant Glioma Cells after Passaging in Vitro, Clinical Immunology, vol.102, issue.1, pp.84-95, 2002.
DOI : 10.1006/clim.2001.5152

U. Herrlinger, S. Aulwurm, H. Strik, S. Weit, U. Naumann et al., MIP-1?? Antagonizes the Effect of a GM-CSF-Enhanced Subcutaneous Vaccine in a Mouse Glioma Model, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.66, issue.1/2, pp.147-154, 2004.
DOI : 10.1023/B:NEON.0000013497.04322.fc

W. C. Jean, S. R. Spellman, and M. A. Wallenfriedman, Effects of Combined Granulocyte???Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor (GM-CSF), Interleukin-2, and Interleukin-12 based Immunotherapy against Intracranial Glioma in the Rat, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.66, issue.1/2, pp.39-49, 2004.
DOI : 10.1023/B:NEON.0000013477.94568.0f

R. Soiffer, T. Lynch, and M. Mihm, Vaccination with irradiated autologous melanoma cells engineered to secrete human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor generates potent antitumor immunity in patients with metastatic melanoma, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.95, issue.22, pp.13141-13146, 1998.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.95.22.13141

M. B. Faries, E. C. Hsueh, X. Ye, M. Hoban, and D. L. Morton, Effect of Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor on Vaccination with an Allogeneic Whole-Cell Melanoma Vaccine, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.15, issue.22, pp.7029-7035, 2009.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1540

C. L. Slingluff-jr, G. R. Petroni, and W. C. Olson, Effect of Granulocyte/Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor on Circulating CD8+ and CD4+ T-Cell Responses to a Multipeptide Melanoma Vaccine: Outcome of a Multicenter Randomized Trial, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.15, issue.22, pp.7036-7044, 2009.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1544

I. Marigo, E. Bosio, and S. Solito, Tumor-Induced Tolerance and Immune Suppression Depend on the C/EBP?? Transcription Factor, Immunity, vol.32, issue.6, pp.790-802, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.immuni.2010.05.010

V. Murthy, A. Moiyadi, R. Sawant, and R. Sarin, Clinical Considerations in Developing Dendritic Cell Vaccine Based Immunotherapy Protocols in Cancer, Current Molecular Medicine, vol.9, issue.6, pp.725-731, 2009.
DOI : 10.2174/156652409788970689

P. Kalinski, J. Urban, R. Narang, E. Berk, E. Wieckowski et al., Dendritic cell-based therapeutic cancer vaccines: what we have and what we need, Future Oncology, vol.5, issue.3, pp.379-390, 2009.
DOI : 10.2217/fon.09.6

E. Gilboa, DC-based cancer vaccines, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.117, issue.5, pp.1195-1203, 2007.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI31205

S. Van-gool, W. Maes, H. Ardon, T. Verschuere, S. Van-cauter et al., Dendritic Cell Therapy of High-Grade Gliomas, Brain Pathology, vol.15, issue.4, pp.694-712, 2009.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1750-3639.2009.00316.x

C. J. Wheeler, Dendritic cell vaccines to combat glioblastoma, Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol.10, issue.4, pp.483-486, 2010.
DOI : 10.1586/ern.10.26

R. Yamanaka, Dendritic-cell- and peptide-based vaccination strategies for glioma, Neurosurgical Review, vol.23, issue.6, pp.265-273, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/s10143-009-0189-1

R. Stupp and M. E. Hegi, Targeting brain-tumor stem cells, Nature Biotechnology, vol.12, issue.2, pp.193-194, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/nbt0207-193

N. Ahmed, V. S. Salsman, and Y. Kew, HER2-Specific T Cells Target Primary Glioblastoma Stem Cells and Induce Regression of Autologous Experimental Tumors, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.16, issue.2, pp.474-485, 2010.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1322

R. B. Mailliard, A. Wankowicz-kalinska, and Q. Cai, ??-Type-1 Polarized Dendritic Cells: A Novel Immunization Tool with Optimized CTL-inducing Activity, Cancer Research, vol.64, issue.17, pp.5934-5937, 2004.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-1261

M. Fujita, X. Zhu, and R. Ueda, Effective Immunotherapy against Murine Gliomas Using Type 1 Polarizing Dendritic Cells--Significant Roles of CXCL10, Cancer Research, vol.69, issue.4, pp.1587-1595, 2009.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-2915

C. S. Higano, E. J. Small, and P. Schellhammer, Sipuleucel-T, Nature Reviews Drug Discovery, vol.28, issue.7, pp.513-514, 2010.
DOI : 10.1038/nrd3220

V. Quillien, A. Moisan, and A. Carsin, Biodistribution of radiolabelled human dendritic cells injected by various routes, European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, vol.198, issue.7, pp.731-741, 2005.
DOI : 10.1007/s00259-005-1825-9

I. J. De-vries, W. J. Lesterhuis, and J. O. Barentsz, Magnetic resonance tracking of dendritic cells in melanoma patients for monitoring of cellular therapy, Nature Biotechnology, vol.37, issue.11, pp.1407-1413, 2005.
DOI : 10.1002/mrm.1153

P. Verdijk, E. H. Aarntzen, and W. J. Lesterhuis, Limited Amounts of Dendritic Cells Migrate into the T-Cell Area of Lymph Nodes but Have High Immune Activating Potential in Melanoma Patients, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.15, issue.7, pp.2531-2540, 2009.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-08-2729

S. Pellegatta, P. L. Poliani, and E. Stucchi, Intra-tumoral dendritic cells increase efficacy of peripheral vaccination by modulation of glioma microenvironment, Neuro-Oncology, vol.12, issue.4, pp.377-388, 2010.
DOI : 10.1093/neuonc/nop024

L. A. Morford, L. H. Elliott, S. L. Carlson, W. H. Brooks, and T. L. Roszman, T cell receptor-mediated signaling is defective in T cells obtained from patients with primary intracranial tumors, Journal of Immunology, vol.159, issue.9, pp.4415-4425, 1997.

A. R. Dix, W. H. Brooks, T. L. Roszman, and L. A. Morford, Immune defects observed in patients with primary malignant brain tumors, Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.100, issue.1-2, pp.216-232, 1999.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-5728(99)00203-9

P. E. Fecci, D. A. Mitchell, and J. F. Whitesides, Increased Regulatory T-Cell Fraction Amidst a Diminished CD4 Compartment Explains Cellular Immune Defects in Patients with Malignant Glioma, Cancer Research, vol.66, issue.6, pp.3294-3302, 2006.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-05-3773

S. F. Hussain, D. Yang, D. Suki, E. Grimm, and A. B. Heimberger, Innate immune functions of microglia isolated from human glioma patients, Journal of Translational Medicine, vol.4, 2006.

C. Woiciechowsky, K. Asadullah, and D. Nestler, Diminished monocytic HLA-DR expression and ex vivo cytokine secretion capacity in patients with glioblastoma: Effect of tumor extirpation, Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.84, issue.2, pp.164-171, 1998.
DOI : 10.1016/S0165-5728(97)00236-1

J. Zou, L. A. Morford, and C. Chougnet, Human gliomainduced immunosuppression involves soluble factor(s) that alters monocyte cytokine profile and surface markers, Journal of Immunology, vol.162, issue.8, pp.4882-4892, 1999.

A. T. Ogden, D. Horgan, and A. Waziri, Defective Receptor Expression and Dendritic Cell Differentiation of Monocytes in Glioblastomas, Neurosurgery, vol.59, issue.4, pp.902-909, 2006.
DOI : 10.1227/01.NEU.0000233907.03070.7B

S. Bodmer, K. Strommer, and K. Frei, Immunosuppression and transforming growth factor-? in glioblastoma. Preferential production of transforming growth factor-?2, Journal of Immunology, vol.143, issue.10, pp.3222-3229, 1989.

M. C. Kuppner, M. Hamou, Y. Sawamura, S. Bodmer, and N. Tribolet, 2, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.71, issue.2, pp.211-217, 1989.
DOI : 10.3171/jns.1989.71.2.0211

M. C. Kuppner, Y. Sawamura, M. Hamou, and N. Tribolet, - and cAMP-modulating agents on human glioblastoma cell killing by interleukin-2-activated lymphocytes, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.72, issue.4, pp.619-625, 1990.
DOI : 10.3171/jns.1990.72.4.0619

W. T. Couldwell, P. Dore-duffy, M. L. Apuzzo, and J. P. , Malignant glioma modulation of immune function: relative contribution of different soluble factors, Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.33, issue.2, pp.89-96, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/0165-5728(91)90052-9

M. Hishii, T. Nitta, and H. Ishida, Human Glioma-derived Interleukin-10 Inhibits Antitumor Immune Responses In Vitro, Neurosurgery, vol.37, issue.6, pp.1160-1166, 1995.
DOI : 10.1227/00006123-199512000-00016

J. Wischhusen, G. Jung, and I. Radovanovic, Identification of CD70-mediated apoptosis of immune effector cells as a novel immune escape pathway of human glioblastoma, Cancer Research, vol.62, issue.9, pp.2592-2599, 2002.

A. Chahlavi, P. Rayman, and A. L. Richmond, Glioblastomas Induce T-Lymphocyte Death by Two Distinct Pathways Involving Gangliosides and CD70, Cancer Research, vol.65, issue.12, pp.5428-5438, 2005.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-4395

P. Saas, P. R. Walker, and M. Hahne, Fas ligand expression by astrocytoma in vivo: maintaining immune privilege in the brain?, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.99, issue.6, pp.1173-1178, 1997.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI119273

M. Weller, C. Weinstock, and C. , CD95-Dependent T-Cell Killing by Glioma Cells Expressing CD95 Ligand: More on Tumor Immune Escape, the CD95 Counterattack, and the Immune Privilege of the Brain, Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry, vol.7, issue.5, pp.282-288, 1997.
DOI : 10.1159/000154883

P. R. Walker, P. Saas, and P. Y. Dietrich, Role of Fas ligand (CD95L) in immune escape: the tumor cell strikes back, Journal of Immunology, vol.158, issue.10, pp.4521-4524, 1997.

H. Wiendl, M. Mitsdoerffer, and V. Hofmeister, A Functional Role of HLA-G Expression in Human Gliomas: An Alternative Strategy of Immune Escape, The Journal of Immunology, vol.168, issue.9, pp.4772-4780, 2002.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.168.9.4772

S. Wintterle, B. Schreiner, and M. Mitsdoerffer, Expression of the B7-related molecule B7-H1 by glioma cells: a potential mechanism of immune paralysis, Cancer Research, vol.63, issue.21, pp.7462-7467, 2003.

R. Wilmotte, K. Burkhardt, and V. Kindler, B7-homolog 1 expression by human glioma: a new mechanism of immune evasion, NeuroReport, vol.16, issue.10, pp.1081-1085, 2005.
DOI : 10.1097/00001756-200507130-00010

T. Avril, S. Saikali, and E. Vauleon, Distinct effects of human glioblastoma immunoregulatory molecules programmed cell death ligand-1 (PDL-1) and indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) on tumour-specific T cell functions, Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.225, issue.1-2, pp.22-33, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2010.04.003

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00486777

R. Grant and V. Kapoor, Inhibition of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity in IFN-?? stimulated astroglioma cells decreases intracellular NAD levels, Biochemical Pharmacology, vol.66, issue.6, pp.1033-1036, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0006-2952(03)00464-7

T. Miyazaki, K. Moritake, and K. Yamada, Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase as a new target for malignant glioma therapy, Journal of Neurosurgery, vol.111, issue.2, pp.230-237, 2009.
DOI : 10.3171/2008.10.JNS081141

M. Weller and A. Fontana, The failure of current immunotherapy for malignant glioma. Tumor-derived TGF-?, T-cell apoptosis, and the immune privilege of the brain, Brain Research Reviews, vol.21, issue.2, pp.128-151, 1995.
DOI : 10.1016/0165-0173(95)00010-0

A. Andaloussi and M. S. Lesniak, An increase in CD4+CD25+FOXP3+ regulatory T cells in tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes of human glioblastoma multiforme, Neuro-Oncology, vol.8, issue.3, pp.234-243, 2006.
DOI : 10.1215/15228517-2006-006

A. B. Heimberger, W. Sun, and S. F. Hussain, Immunological responses in a patient with glioblastoma multiforme treated with sequential courses of temozolomide and immunotherapy: Case study, Clinical and Developmental Immunology, pp.98-103, 2008.
DOI : 10.1215/15228517-2007-046

D. I. Gabrilovich and S. Nagaraj, Myeloid-derived suppressor cells as regulators of the immune system, Nature Reviews Immunology, vol.172, issue.3, pp.162-174, 2009.
DOI : 10.1038/nri2506

Z. Jia, Q. Huang, and C. Kang, Overexpression of septin 7 suppresses glioma cell growth, Journal of Neuro-Oncology, vol.130, issue.5, pp.329-340, 2010.
DOI : 10.1007/s11060-009-0092-1

F. S. Hodi, S. J. O-'day, and D. F. Mcdermott, Improved Survival with Ipilimumab in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.363, issue.8, pp.711-723, 2010.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa1003466

A. Ribas, B. Comin-anduix, and B. Chmielowski, Dendritic Cell Vaccination Combined with CTLA4 Blockade in Patients with Metastatic Melanoma, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.15, issue.19, pp.6267-6276, 2009.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1254

F. Ghiringhelli, N. Larmonier, and E. Schmitt, CD4+CD25+ regulatory T???cells suppress tumor immunity but are sensitive to cyclophosphamide which allows immunotherapy of established tumors to be curative, European Journal of Immunology, vol.34, issue.2, pp.336-344, 2004.
DOI : 10.1002/eji.200324181

M. A. Morse, A. C. Hobeika, and T. Osada, Depletion of human regulatory T cells specifically enhances antigen-specific immune responses to cancer vaccines, Blood, vol.112, issue.3, pp.610-618, 2008.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2008-01-135319

R. Ueda, M. Fujita, and X. Zhu, Systemic Inhibition of Transforming Growth Factor-?? in Glioma-Bearing Mice Improves the Therapeutic Efficacy of Glioma-Associated Antigen Peptide Vaccines, Clinical Cancer Research, vol.15, issue.21, pp.6551-6559, 2009.
DOI : 10.1158/1078-0432.CCR-09-1067

W. Maes, G. G. Rosas, and B. Verbinnen, DC vaccination with anti-CD25 treatment leads to long-term immunity against experimental glioma, Neuro-Oncology, vol.11, issue.5, pp.529-542, 2009.
DOI : 10.1215/15228517-2009-004