U. Who and U. , Toward universal access. Scaling up priority HIV/AIDS interventions in the health sector, 2009.

. Ministère-de-la-lutte-contre-le-sida, Suivi de la déclaration d'engagement sur le VIH/SIDA (UNGASS) Rapport national de la Côte d'Ivoire, 2008.

. Abidjan:-ministère-de-la-lutte-contre-le-sida, Available:http://data.unaids.org/ pub, Report, 2008.

M. Brinkhof, A. Boulle, R. Weigel, E. Messou, and C. Mathers, Mortality of HIV-Infected Patients Starting Antiretroviral Therapy in Sub-Saharan Africa: Comparison with HIV-Unrelated Mortality, PLoS Medicine, vol.22, issue.4, p.1000066, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pmed.1000066.s005

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00379730

S. Boyer, F. Marcellin, P. Ongolo-zogo, S. Abega, and R. Nantchouang, Financial barriers to HIV treatment in Yaounde, Cameroon: first results of a national cross-sectional survey, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol.87, issue.4, pp.279-287, 2009.
DOI : 10.2471/BLT.07.049643

O. Onwujekwe, N. Dike, C. Chukwuka, B. Uzochukwu, and C. Onyedum, Examining catastrophic costs and benefit incidence of subsidized antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme in south-east Nigeria, Health Policy, vol.90, issue.2-3, pp.223-229, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.healthpol.2008.10.006

S. Toure, B. Kouadio, C. Seyler, M. Traore, and N. Dakoury-dogbo, Rapid scaling-up of antiretroviral therapy in 10 000 adults in C??te d??Ivoire: 2-year outcomes and determinants, AIDS, vol.22, issue.7, pp.873-882, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/QAD.0b013e3282f768f8

C. Murray and D. Evans, Health systems performance assessment: debates, methods and empiricism. Geneva: World Health Organization, 2003.

A. Deaton, The analysis of household surveys: a microeconometric approach to development policy, 1997.
DOI : 10.1596/0-8018-5254-4

K. Xu, D. Evans, K. Kawabata, R. Zeramdini, and J. Klavus, Household catastrophic health expenditure: a multicountry analysis, The Lancet, vol.362, issue.9378, pp.111-117, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13861-5

K. Xu, D. Evans, G. Carrin, and A. Aguilar-rivera, Designing health financing systems to reduce catastrophic health expenditure. Technical briefs for policy-makers no 2, Geneva: World Health Organization, 2005.

S. Russell, The economic burden of illness for households in developing countries: a review of studies focusing on malaria, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, Am J Trop Med Hyg, vol.71, pp.147-155, 2004.

A. Wagstaff and E. Van-doorslaer, Catastrophe and impoverishment in paying for health care: with applications to Vietnam 1993-1998, Health Economics, vol.77, issue.11, pp.921-934, 1993.
DOI : 10.1002/hec.776

E. Van-doorslaer, O. Donnell, O. Rannan-eliya, R. Somanathan, A. Adhikari et al., Catastrophic payments for health care in Asia, Health Economics, vol.362, issue.11, pp.1159-1184, 2007.
DOI : 10.1002/hec.1209

T. Somkotra and L. Lagrada, Which Households Are At Risk Of Catastrophic Health Spending: Experience In Thailand After Universal Coverage, Health Affairs, vol.28, issue.3, pp.467-478, 2009.
DOI : 10.1377/hlthaff.28.3.w467

L. Wyszewianski, Families with catastrophic health care expenditures, Health Serv Res, vol.21, pp.617-634, 1986.

N. Veenstra and A. Whiteside, Economic impact of HIV, Best Practice & Research Clinical Obstetrics & Gynaecology, vol.19, issue.2, pp.197-210, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bpobgyn.2004.10.005

D. Mcintyre, M. Thiede, G. Dahlgren, and M. Whitehead, What are the economic consequences for households of illness and of paying for health care in low- and middle-income country contexts?, Social Science & Medicine, vol.62, issue.4, pp.858-865, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.07.001

S. Hounton, A. Akonde, D. Zannou, J. Bashi, and N. Meda, Costing universal access of highly active antiretroviral therapy in Benin, AIDS Care, vol.9, issue.1, pp.582-587, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/00126334-200407010-00010

B. Taverne, K. Diop, and P. Vinard, The cost of universal free access for treating HIV/AIDS in low-income countries: the case of Senegal The political Economy of HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries TRIPS, Public Health Systems and Free Access, pp.273-290, 2008.

P. Msellati, A. Juillet-amari, J. Prudhomme, H. Akribi, and D. Coulibaly-traore, Socio-economic and health characteristics of HIV-infected patients seeking care in relation to access to the Drug Access Initiative and to antiretroviral treatment in C??te d??Ivoire, AIDS, vol.17, issue.3, pp.63-68, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/00002030-200317003-00009

D. Katzenstein, M. Laga, and J. Moatti, The evaluation of the HIV/AIDS Drug Access Initiatives in C??te D??Ivoire, Senegal and Uganda, AIDS, vol.17, issue.3, pp.1-4, 2003.
DOI : 10.1097/00002030-200317003-00001

A. Furber, I. Hodgson, A. Desclaux, and D. Mukasa, Barriers to better care for people with AIDS in developing countries, BMJ, vol.329, issue.7477, pp.1281-1283, 2004.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.329.7477.1281

M. Posse, F. Meheus, H. Van-asten, A. Van-der-ven, and R. Baltussen, Barriers to access to antiretroviral treatment in developing countries: a review, Tropical Medicine & International Health, vol.179, issue.7, pp.904-913, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-3156.2008.02091.x

K. Xu, D. Evans, P. Kadama, J. Nabyonga, and P. Ogwal, Understanding the impact of eliminating user fees: Utilization and catastrophic health expenditures in Uganda, Social Science & Medicine, vol.62, issue.4, pp.866-876, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.socscimed.2005.07.004

N. Nombela, B. Kouadio, S. Toure, C. Seyler, and Y. Flori, Nonantiretroviral Drug Consumption by CD4 Cell Count in HIV-Infected Adults, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.41, issue.2, pp.225-231, 2006.
DOI : 10.1097/01.qai.0000179456.39185.9b

T. Su, B. Kouyate, and S. Flessa, Catastrophic household expenditure for health care in low-income society: a study from Nouna District, Burkina Faso, Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, vol.84, issue.1, pp.21-27, 2006.
DOI : 10.2471/BLT.05.023739

P. Duraisamy, A. Ganesh, R. Homan, N. Kumarasamy, and C. Castle, Costs and financial burden of care and support services to PLHA and households in South India, AIDS Care, vol.71, issue.2, pp.121-127, 2006.
DOI : 10.2165/00019053-200321150-00005

S. Russell, Ability to pay for health care: concepts and evidence, Health Policy and Planning, vol.11, issue.3, pp.219-237, 1996.
DOI : 10.1093/heapol/11.3.219

M. Pradhan and N. Prescott, Social risk management options for medical care in Indonesia, Health Economics, vol.52, issue.5, pp.431-446, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/hec.689

W. Van-damme, B. Meessen, I. Por, and K. Kober, Catastrophic health expenditure, The Lancet, vol.362, issue.9388, pp.996-997, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14375-9

G. Flores, J. Krishnakumar, O. Donnell, O. Van-doorslaer, and E. , Coping with health-care costs: implications for the measurement of catastrophic expenditures and poverty, Health Economics, vol.326, issue.11, pp.1393-1412, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/hec.1338

C. Lu, B. Chin, G. Li, and C. Murray, Limitations of methods for measuring out-of-pocket and catastrophic private health expenditures, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol.87, issue.3, pp.238-244, 2009.
DOI : 10.2471/BLT.08.054379

S. Russel and L. Gilson, Are health services protecting the livelihoods of the urban poor in Sri Lanka? Findings from two low-income areas of Colombo, Social Science & Medicine, vol.63, issue.7, pp.1732-1744, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.socscimed.2006.04.017

Y. Souteyrand, V. Collard, J. Moatti, I. Grubb, and T. Guerma, Free care at the point of service delivery: a key component for reaching universal access to HIV/AIDS treatment in developing countries, AIDS, vol.22, issue.Suppl 1, pp.161-168, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/01.aids.0000327637.59672.02

R. Zachariah, I. Van-engelgem, M. Massaquoi, L. Kocholla, and M. Manzi, Payment for antiretroviral drugs is associated with a higher rate of patients lost to follow-up than those offered free-of-charge therapy in Nairobi, Kenya, Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol.102, issue.3, pp.288-293, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.trstmh.2007.12.007

J. Mukherjee, L. Ivers, F. Leandre, P. Farmer, and H. Behforouz, Antiretroviral Therapy in Resource-Poor Settings, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.43, issue.Supplement 1, pp.123-126, 2006.
DOI : 10.1097/01.qai.0000248348.25630.74

P. Vinard, K. Diop, and B. Taverne, Implementing funding modalities for free access: The case for a ''purchasing fund system'' to cover medical care The political Economy of HIV/AIDS in Developing Countries TRIPS, Public Health Systems and Free Access, pp.291-311, 2008.

N. Palmer, D. Mueller, L. Gilson, A. Mills, and A. Haines, Health financing to promote access in low income settings???how much do we know?, The Lancet, vol.364, issue.9442, pp.1365-1370, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0140-6736(04)17195-X

C. James, K. Hanson, B. Mcpake, D. Balabanova, and D. Gwatkin, To Retain or Remove User Fees?, Applied Health Economics and Health Policy, vol.47, issue.9450, pp.137-153, 2006.
DOI : 10.2165/00148365-200605030-00001

L. Gilson, D. Kalyalya, F. Kuchler, S. Lake, and H. Oranga, Strategies for promoting equity: experience with community financing in three African countries, Health Policy, vol.58, issue.1, pp.37-67, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0168-8510(01)00153-1

M. Ranson, Reduction of catastrophic health care expenditures by a community-based health insurance scheme in Gujarat, India: current experiences and challenges, Bull World Health Organ, vol.80, pp.613-621, 2002.

S. Bennett, The role of community-based health insurance within the health care financing system: a framework for analysis, Health Policy and Planning, vol.19, issue.3, pp.147-158, 2004.
DOI : 10.1093/heapol/czh018

G. Carrin, M. Waelkens, and B. Criel, Community-based health insurance in developing countries: a study of its contribution to the performance of health financing systems, Tropical Medicine and International Health, vol.80, issue.8, pp.799-811, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/heapol/18.1.74

C. Molyneux, B. Hutchison, J. Chuma, and L. Gilson, The role of community-based organizations in household ability to pay for health care in Kilifi District, Kenya, Health Policy and Planning, vol.22, issue.6, pp.381-392, 2007.
DOI : 10.1093/heapol/czm031

A. Leive and K. Xu, Coping with out-of-pocket health payments: empirical evidence from 15 African countries, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol.86, issue.11, pp.849-856, 2008.
DOI : 10.2471/BLT.07.049403

G. Carrin, I. Mathauer, K. Xu, and D. Evans, Universal coverage of health services: tailoring its implementation, Bulletin of the World Health Organization, vol.86, issue.11, pp.857-863, 2008.
DOI : 10.2471/BLT.07.049387

J. Lange, O. Schellekens, M. Lindner, and J. Van-der-gaag, Public???private partnerships and new models of healthcare access, Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS, vol.3, issue.4, pp.509-513, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/COH.0b013e3283031c67

B. Samb, T. Evans, M. Dybul, R. Atun, and J. Moatti, An assessment of interactions between global health initiatives and country health systems, Lancet, vol.373, pp.2137-2169, 2009.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00416057