M. Duvic, Bexarotene Is Effective and Safe for Treatment of Refractory Advanced-Stage Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma: Multinational Phase II-III Trial Results, Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol.19, issue.9, pp.2456-2471, 2001.
DOI : 10.1200/JCO.2001.19.9.2456

N. Vu-dac, Retinoids increase human apo C-III expression at the transcriptional level via the retinoid X receptor. Contribution to the hypertriglyceridemic action of retinoids., Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.102, issue.3, pp.625-632, 1998.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI1581

P. F. Egea, Crystal structure of the human RXRalpha ligand-binding domain bound to its natural ligand: 9-cis retinoic acid, The EMBO Journal, vol.19, issue.11, pp.2592-2601, 2000.
DOI : 10.1093/emboj/19.11.2592

R. Mukherjee, Sensitization of diabetic and obese mice to insulin by retinoid X receptor agonists, Nature, vol.386, issue.6623, pp.407-410, 1997.
DOI : 10.1038/386407a0

R. M. Cesario, The rexinoid LG100754 is a novel RXR:PPARgamma agonist and decreases glucose levels in vivo, Mol. Endocrinol, vol.15, pp.1360-1369, 2001.

K. Morita, Selective allosteric ligand activation of the retinoid X receptor heterodimers of NGFI-B and Nurr1, Biochemical Pharmacology, vol.71, issue.1-2, pp.98-107, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bcp.2005.10.017

M. D. Leibowitz, Biological Characterization of a Heterodimer-Selective Retinoid X Receptor Modulator: Potential Benefits for the Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes, Endocrinology, vol.147, issue.2, pp.1044-1053, 2006.
DOI : 10.1210/en.2005-0690

L. Altucci, Rexinoid-Triggered Differentiation and Tumor-Selective Apoptosis of Acute Myeloid Leukemia by Protein Kinase A-Mediated Desubordination of Retinoid X Receptor, Cancer Research, vol.65, issue.19, pp.8754-8765, 2005.
DOI : 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-04-3569

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00187351

A. L. Bookout, Anatomical Profiling of Nuclear Receptor Expression Reveals??a Hierarchical Transcriptional Network, Cell, vol.126, issue.4, pp.789-799, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.049

J. Brocard, Two novel RXR alpha isoforms from mouse testis, Biochem. Biophys. Res, 1996.
DOI : 10.1006/bbrc.1996.1782

K. Fleischhauer, Isolation of a full-length cDNA clone encoding a N-terminally variant form of the human retinoid X receptor ??, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.20, issue.7, p.1801, 1992.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/20.7.1801

A. Fujita and T. Mitsuhashi, Differential regulation of ligand-dependent and ligand-independent functions of the mouse retinoid X receptor beta by alternative splicing, Biochem, 1999.

Q. Liu and E. Linney, The mouse retinoid-X receptor-gamma gene -genomic organization and evidence for functional isoforms, Mol. Endocrinol, vol.7, pp.651-658, 1993.

M. Mark, FUNCTION OF RETINOID NUCLEAR RECEPTORS: Lessons from Genetic and Pharmacological Dissections of the Retinoic Acid Signaling Pathway During Mouse Embryogenesis, Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol.46, issue.1, 2006.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.46.120604.141156

W. Krezel, RXR gamma null mice are apparently normal and compound RXR alpha, Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. U. S. A 93, pp.9010-9014, 1996.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.93.17.9010

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC38586

Y. J. Wan, Hepatocyte Retinoid X Receptor-??-Deficient Mice Have Reduced Food Intake, Increased Body Weight, and Improved Glucose Tolerance, Endocrinology, vol.144, issue.2, pp.605-611, 2003.
DOI : 10.1210/en.2002-221003

Y. Cai, The role of hepatocyte RXR?? in xenobiotic-sensing nuclear receptor-mediated pathways, European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol.15, issue.1, pp.89-96, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0928-0987(01)00211-1

Y. J. Wan, Hepatocyte-Specific Mutation Establishes Retinoid X Receptor alpha as a Heterodimeric Integrator of Multiple Physiological Processes in the Liver, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.20, issue.12, pp.4436-4444, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.20.12.4436-4444.2000

X. Yang, Deregulation of Growth Factor, Circadian Clock, and Cell Cycle Signaling in Regenerating Hepatocyte RXR??-Deficient Mouse Livers, The American Journal of Pathology, vol.176, issue.2, pp.733-743, 2010.
DOI : 10.2353/ajpath.2010.090524

T. Imai, Selective ablation of retinoid X receptor ?? in hepatocytes impairs their lifespan and regenerative capacity, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.98, issue.8, pp.4581-4586, 2001.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.071056098

M. Li, RXR-alpha ablation in skin keratinocytes results in alopecia and epidermal alterations, Development, vol.128, pp.675-688, 2001.

R. Ocadiz-delgado, Impaired cervical homeostasis upon selective ablation of RXR?? in epithelial cells, genesis, vol.18, issue.1, pp.19-28, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/dvg.20357

M. Ricote, Normal hematopoiesis after conditional targeting of RXR?? in murine hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells, Journal of Leukocyte Biology, vol.80, issue.4, pp.850-861, 2006.
DOI : 10.1189/jlb.0206097

D. Metzger, Functional role of RXRs and PPARgamma in mature adipocytes, 2005.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00187698

G. Li, Cloning and Characterization of the Human Retinoid X Receptor ?? Gene: Conservation of Structure with the Mouse Homolog, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.269, issue.1, pp.54-57, 2000.
DOI : 10.1006/bbrc.2000.2244

K. Feingold, Altered expression of nuclear hormone receptors and coactivators in mouse heart during the acute-phase response, AJP: Endocrinology and Metabolism, vol.286, issue.2, pp.201-207, 2004.
DOI : 10.1152/ajpendo.00205.2003

X. Yang, Nuclear Receptor Expression Links the Circadian Clock to Metabolism, Cell, vol.126, issue.4, pp.801-810, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2006.06.050

N. B. Mcdermott, Isolation and Functional Analysis of the Mouse RXR??1 Gene Promoter in Anterior Pituitary Cells, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.277, issue.39, pp.36839-36844, 2002.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M203689200

K. Prufer and J. Barsony, Retinoid X Receptor Dominates the Nuclear Import and Export of the Unliganded Vitamin D Receptor, Molecular Endocrinology, vol.16, issue.8, pp.1738-1751, 2002.
DOI : 10.1210/me.2001-0345

M. Gianni, The AF-1 and AF-2 Domains of RAR{gamma}2 and RXR{alpha} Cooperate for Triggering the Transactivation and the Degradation of RAR{gamma}2/RXR{alpha} Heterodimers, J, 2003.

M. Boudjelal, Ubiquitin/proteasome pathway regulates levels of retinoic acid receptor gamma and retinoid X receptor alpha in human keratinocytes, Cancer Res, vol.60, pp.2247-2252, 2000.

F. Pettersson, Rexinoids Modulate Steroid and Xenobiotic Receptor Activity by Increasing Its Protein Turnover in a Calpain-dependent Manner, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.283, issue.32, pp.21945-21952, 2008.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M710358200

J. H. Lin, Clinical and in vitro resistance to bexarotene in adult T-cell leukemia: loss of RXR-?? receptor, Blood, vol.112, issue.6, pp.2484-2488, 2008.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2008-03-141424

W. C. Tsao, Proteasome inhibitors induce peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor transactivation through RXR accumulation and a protein kinase C-dependent pathway, Experimental Cell Research, vol.304, issue.1, pp.234-243, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.yexcr.2004.11.004

D. Lattuada, Accumulation of Retinoid X Receptor-?? in Uterine Leiomyomas Is Associated with a Delayed Ligand-Dependent Proteasome-Mediated Degradation and an Alteration of Its Transcriptional Activity, Molecular Endocrinology, vol.21, issue.3, pp.602-612, 2007.
DOI : 10.1210/me.2006-0206

R. Matsushima-nishiwaki, Phosphorylation of retinoid X receptor alpha at serine 260 impairs its metabolism and function in human hepatocellular carcinoma, Cancer Res, vol.61, pp.7675-7682, 2001.

B. Lefebvre, Proteasomal degradation of retinoid X receptor alpha reprograms transcriptional activity of PPARgamma in obese mice and humans, J. Clin. Invest, vol.120, 2010.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00472906

H. Zhou, NSAID Sulindac and Its Analog Bind RXR?? and Inhibit RXR??-Dependent AKT Signaling, Cancer Cell, vol.17, issue.6, pp.560-573, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccr.2010.04.023

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2907921

F. Casas, Endocrine regulation of mitochondrial activity: involvement of truncated RXRalpha and c-Erb Aalpha1 proteins, The FASEB Journal, vol.17, issue.3, pp.426-436, 2003.
DOI : 10.1096/fj.02-0732com

Y. W. Lin, 9-cis retinoic acid induces retinoid X receptor localized to the mitochondria for mediation of mitochondrial transcription, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.377, issue.2, pp.351-354, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbrc.2008.09.122

R. Yasmin, Nuclear Import of the Retinoid X Receptor, the Vitamin D Receptor, and Their Mutual Heterodimer, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.280, issue.48, pp.40152-40160, 2005.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M507708200

K. Prufer, Dimerization with Retinoid X Receptors Promotes Nuclear Localization and Subnuclear Targeting of Vitamin D Receptors, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.275, issue.52, pp.41114-41123, 2000.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M003791200

T. Tanaka, Altered Localization of Retinoid X Receptor ?? Coincides with Loss of Retinoid Responsiveness in Human Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.24, issue.9, pp.3972-3982, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.24.9.3972-3982.2004

R. Ghose, Endotoxin leads to rapid subcellular re-localization of hepatic RXRalpha: A novel mechanism for reduced hepatic gene expression in inflammation, Nuclear Receptor, vol.2, issue.1, p.4, 2004.
DOI : 10.1186/1478-1336-2-4

X. Cao, Retinoid X Receptor Regulates Nur77/TR3-Dependent Apoptosis by Modulating Its Nuclear Export and Mitochondrial Targeting, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.25, issue.1, pp.9705-9725, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.25.1.524.2005

X. F. Lin, RXR?? acts as a carrier for TR3 nuclear export in a 9-cis retinoic acid-dependent manner in gastric cancer cells, Journal of Cell Science, vol.117, issue.23, pp.5609-5621, 2004.
DOI : 10.1242/jcs.01474

M. Macoritto, Phosphorylation of the human retinoid X receptor alpha at serine 260, 2008.

S. Adachi, Phosphorylation of retinoid X receptor suppresses its ubiquitination in human hepatocellular carcinoma, Hepatology, vol.155, issue.2, pp.332-340, 2002.
DOI : 10.1053/jhep.2002.31164

P. Shankaranarayanan, Growth Factor-Antagonized Rexinoid Apoptosis Involves Permissive PPAR??/RXR Heterodimers to??Activate the Intrinsic Death Pathway by NO, Cancer Cell, vol.16, issue.3, pp.220-231, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccr.2009.07.029

J. N. Feige, Fluorescence Imaging Reveals the Nuclear Behavior of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor/Retinoid X Receptor Heterodimers in the Absence and Presence of Ligand, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.280, issue.18, 2005.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M500786200

C. Depoix, Control of retinoic acid receptor heterodimerization by ligand-induced structural transitions. a novel mechanism of action for retinoid antagonists, J. Biol. Chem, vol.276, pp.9452-9459, 2001.

A. Kassam, Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) Agonist-induced Antagonism of Farnesoid X Receptor (FXR) Activity due to Absence of Coactivator Recruitment and Decreased DNA Binding, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.278, issue.12, 2003.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M208312200

B. A. Laffitte, Identification of the DNA Binding Specificity and Potential Target Genes for the Farnesoid X-activated Receptor, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.275, issue.14, pp.10638-10647, 2000.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.275.14.10638

M. V. Sanguedolce, The promoter context is a decisive factor in establishing selective responsiveness to nuclear class II receptors, The EMBO Journal, vol.16, issue.10, pp.2861-2873, 1997.
DOI : 10.1093/emboj/16.10.2861

R. Kurokawa, Polarity-specific activities of retinoic acid receptors determined by a co-repressor, Nature, vol.377, issue.6548, pp.451-454, 1995.
DOI : 10.1038/377451a0

X. K. Zhang, Targeting Nur77 translocation, Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets, vol.28, issue.1, pp.69-79, 2007.
DOI : 10.4161/cbt.5.1.2400

J. Zhu, RXR Is an Essential Component of the Oncogenic PML/RARA Complex In Vivo, Cancer Cell, vol.12, issue.1, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccr.2007.06.004

B. B. Zeisig, Recruitment of RXR by Homotetrameric RAR?? Fusion Proteins Is Essential for Transformation, Cancer Cell, vol.12, issue.1, pp.36-51, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ccr.2007.06.006

P. Mcnamara, Regulation of CLOCK and MOP4 by Nuclear Hormone Receptors in the Vasculature, Cell, vol.105, issue.7, pp.877-889, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(01)00401-9

C. Kress, Active cytosine demethylation triggered by a nuclear receptor involves DNA strand breaks, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.103, issue.30, pp.11112-11117, 2006.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.0601793103

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00093585

B. G. Ju, A Topoisomerase II??-Mediated dsDNA Break Required for Regulated Transcription, Science, vol.312, issue.5781, pp.1798-1802, 2006.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1127196

S. Um, Retinoic Acid Receptors Interact Physically and Functionally with the T:G Mismatch-specific Thymine-DNA Glycosylase, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.273, issue.33, pp.20728-20736, 1998.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.273.33.20728

P. J. Martin, The proliferating cell nuclear antigen regulates retinoic acid receptor transcriptional activity through direct protein-protein interaction, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.33, issue.13, pp.4311-4321, 2005.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gki745

Y. Takahashi, ApoC-III gene expression is sharply increased during adipogenesis and is augmented by retinoid X receptor (RXR) agonists, FEBS Letters, vol.358, issue.2, pp.493-497, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.febslet.2008.12.050

P. Sacchetti, Requirements for Heterodimerization between the Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nurr1 and Retinoid X Receptors, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.277, issue.38, pp.35088-35096, 2002.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M205816200

D. Li, Novel Roles of Retinoid X Receptor (RXR) and RXR Ligand in Dynamically Modulating the Activity of the Thyroid Hormone Receptor/RXR Heterodimer, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.279, issue.9, pp.7427-7437, 2004.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M311596200

N. Vernet, Retinoic Acid Metabolism and Signaling Pathways in the Adult and Developing Mouse Testis, Endocrinology, vol.147, issue.1, pp.96-110, 2006.
DOI : 10.1210/en.2005-0953

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00188178

B. Mascrez, Ligand-dependent contribution of RXR?? to cholesterol homeostasis in Sertoli cells, EMBO reports, vol.19, issue.3, pp.285-290, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.embor.7400094

Y. Saga, Impaired extrapyramidal function caused by the targeted disruption of Retinoid X receptor RXRgamma1 isoform, Genes to Cells, vol.136, issue.4, pp.219-228, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/abio.1993.1459

B. R. Haugen, Retinoid X Receptor ??-Deficient Mice Have Increased Skeletal Muscle Lipoprotein Lipase Activity and Less Weight Gain when Fed a High-Fat Diet, Endocrinology, vol.145, issue.8, pp.3679-3685, 2004.
DOI : 10.1210/en.2003-1401

A. I. Shulman and D. J. Mangelsdorf, Retinoid X Receptor Heterodimers in the Metabolic Syndrome, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.353, issue.6, pp.604-615, 2005.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMra043590

A. I. Shulman, Structural Determinants of Allosteric Ligand Activation in RXR Heterodimers, Cell, vol.116, issue.3, pp.417-429, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(04)00119-9

A. I. Castillo, A Permissive Retinoid X Receptor/Thyroid Hormone Receptor Heterodimer Allows Stimulation of Prolactin Gene Transcription by Thyroid Hormone and 9-cis-Retinoic Acid, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.24, issue.2, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.24.2.502-513.2004

C. Calleja, Genetic and pharmacological evidence that a retinoic acid cannot be the RXR-activating ligand in mouse epidermis keratinocytes, Genes & Development, vol.20, issue.11, pp.1525-1538, 2006.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.368706

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00187852

C. Leo, Role of Retinoid Receptor Coactivator Pockets in Cofactor Recruitment and Transcriptional Regulation, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.276, issue.25, pp.23127-23134, 2001.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M100462200

V. Pogenberg, Characterization of the Interaction between Retinoic Acid Receptor/Retinoid X Receptor (RAR/RXR) Heterodimers and Transcriptional Coactivators through Structural and Fluorescence Anisotropy Studies, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.280, issue.2, pp.1625-1633, 2005.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M409302200

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00187727

Y. L. Son and Y. C. Lee, Molecular determinants of the interactions between LXR/RXR heterodimers and TRAP220, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.384, issue.3, pp.389-393, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbrc.2009.04.131

S. P. Anderson, Overlapping Transcriptional Programs Regulated by the Nuclear Receptors Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ??, Retinoid X Receptor, and Liver X Receptor in Mouse Liver, Molecular Pharmacology, vol.66, issue.6, pp.1440-1452, 2004.
DOI : 10.1124/mol.104.005496

C. X. Zhang-gandhi and P. D. Drew, Liver X receptor and retinoid X receptor agonists inhibit inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes, Journal of Neuroimmunology, vol.183, issue.1-2, pp.50-59, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jneuroim.2006.11.007

S. Ishida, Clinically potential subclasses of retinoid synergists revealed by gene expression profiling, Mol. Cancer Ther, vol.2, pp.49-58, 2003.

F. Lalloyer, Rexinoid Bexarotene Modulates Triglyceride but not Cholesterol Metabolism via Gene-Specific Permissivity of the RXR/LXR Heterodimer in the Liver, Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol.29, issue.10, 2009.
DOI : 10.1161/ATVBAHA.109.189506

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00410108

Y. L. Son, RXR heterodimerization allosterically activates LXR binding to the second NR box of activating signal co-integrator-2, Biochemical Journal, vol.410, issue.2, pp.319-330, 2008.
DOI : 10.1042/BJ20070837

M. A. Lemaire, Activation of RXR???PPAR heterodimers by organotin environmental endocrine disruptors, EMBO reports, vol.10, issue.4, pp.367-373, 2009.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M409302200

H. Kagechika and K. Shudo, Synthetic Retinoids:?? Recent Developments Concerning Structure and Clinical Utility, Journal of Medicinal Chemistry, vol.48, issue.19, pp.5875-5883, 2005.
DOI : 10.1021/jm0581821

P. Gervois, Drug Insight: mechanisms of action and therapeutic applications for agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors, Nature Clinical Practice Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.27, issue.2, pp.145-156, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/ncpendmet0397

T. Nishimaki-mogami, The RXR agonists PA024 and HX630 have different abilities to activate LXR/RXR and to induce ABCA1 expression in macrophage cell lines, Biochemical Pharmacology, vol.76, issue.8, pp.1006-1013, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bcp.2008.08.005

P. Sacchetti, Multiple signaling pathways regulate the transcriptional activity of the orphan nuclear receptor NURR1, Nucleic Acids Research, vol.34, issue.19, pp.5515-5527, 2006.
DOI : 10.1093/nar/gkl712

T. Yamauchi, Inhibition of RXR and PPAR?? ameliorates diet-induced obesity and type 2 diabetes, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.108, issue.7, pp.1001-1013, 2001.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI12864

M. B. Meyer, Genome-wide analysis of the VDR/RXR cistrome in osteoblast cells provides new mechanistic insight into the actions of the vitamin D hormone, The Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, vol.121, issue.1-2, 2010.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jsbmb.2010.02.011

R. Nielsen, Genome-wide profiling of PPAR??:RXR and RNA polymerase II occupancy reveals temporal activation of distinct metabolic pathways and changes in RXR dimer composition during adipogenesis, Genes & Development, vol.22, issue.21, pp.2953-2967, 2008.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.501108

M. S. Hamza, De-Novo Identification of PPAR??/RXR Binding Sites and Direct Targets during Adipogenesis, PLoS ONE, vol.27, issue.3, p.4907, 2009.
DOI : 10.1371/journal.pone.0004907.s025

Z. Hu, The RXR? interaction network Proteins engaging physical and functional interactions with RXR? are indicated and classified according to their main functions. Data were compiled from the visANT database Towards zoomable multidimensional maps of the cell, Figure Nat Biotechnol, vol.2, issue.255, pp.547-54, 2007.