. Simonsson, Population pharmacokinetics of nevirapine in combination with 2 rifampicin-based short course chemotherapy in HIV-and tuberculosis-infected 3, 2009.

D. A. Erickson, G. Mather, W. F. Trager, R. H. Levy, and J. J. Keirns, 5 Characterization of the in vitro biotransformation of the HIV-1 reverse transcriptase 6 inhibitor nevirapine by human hepatic cytochromes P-450, Drug Metab Dispos, vol.7, issue.8, pp.1488-1495, 1999.

R. C. Estrela, A. B. Santoro, P. F. Barroso, M. Tuyama, and G. Suarez-kurtz, CYP3A5 genotype has no impact on plasma trough concentrations of 10 lopinavir and ritonavir in HIV-infected subjects, Clin Pharmacol Ther, vol.9, issue.11, pp.205-207, 2008.

. Delfraissy, Positive outcomes of HAART at 24 months in HIV-infected 14 patients in Cambodia, Aids, vol.21, issue.15, pp.2293-2301, 2007.

M. Gandhi, L. Z. Benet, P. Bacchetti, A. Kalinowski, K. Anastos et al., Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Pharmacokinetics in a Large Unselected Cohort of HIV-Infected Women, JAIDS Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes, vol.50, issue.5, pp.482-501, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/QAI.0b013e31819c3376

S. Shirasaka, S. Kimura, and . Oka, Successful efavirenz dose reduction in 24 HIV type 1-infected individuals with cytochrome P450 2B6 *6 and *26. Clin Infect 25 Dis, pp.1230-1237, 2007.

C. Vincent, C. Katlama, B. Leport, D. Bonnet, F. Salmon-ceron et al., High variability of indinavir and nelfinavir pharmacokinetics 29 in HIV-infected patients with a sustained virological response on highly active 30 antiretroviral therapy, Clin Pharmacokinet, vol.44, issue.20, pp.1267-1278, 2005.

S. Guan, M. Huang, X. Li, X. Chen, E. Chan et al., Intra-and 32 inter-ethnic differences in the allele frequencies of, 2006.

D. W. Haas, T. Gebretsadik, G. Mayo, U. N. Menon, E. P. Acosta et al., Associations between 36 CYP2B6 polymorphisms and pharmacokinetics after a single dose of nevirapine or 37 efavirenz in African americans, J Infect Dis, vol.35, issue.38, pp.872-880, 2009.

M. , Y. Takekuma, N. Endo, K. Narahara, and S. I. Hamdy, Pharmacogenetics of efavirenz and central nervous system side effects: an Adult 41 AIDS Clinical Trials Group study, 43 Kishikawa, M. Matsuura, Y. Agatsuma, T. Inoue, and M. Mizugaki, pp.2391-2400, 2002.

. Bertilsson, CYP3A5 genotype has an impact on the metabolism of the HIV 3 protease inhibitor saquinavir, Clin Pharmacol Ther, vol.81, issue.4, pp.708-712, 2007.

M. Eichelbaum, U. M. Schwab, and . Zanger, Genetic variability of 6 CYP2B6 in populations of African and Asian origin: allele frequencies, novel 7 functional variants, and possible implications for anti-HIV therapy with efavirenz, 2005.

M. J. Lamson, J. P. Sabo, T. R. Macgregor, J. W. Pav, L. Rowland et al., Single dose pharmacokinetics and 11 bioavailability of nevirapine in healthy volunteers, Pharmacogenet Genomics. Biopharm Drug Dispos, vol.15, issue.27, pp.861-873285, 1999.

E. Kazatchkine, E. Mpoudi-ngole, and . Delaporte, Effectiveness and safety 17 of a generic fixed-dose combination of nevirapine, stavudine, and lamivudine in 18 HIV-1-infected adults in Cameroon: open-label multicentre trial Cytochrome P450 2B6 516G-->T is associated with 22 plasma concentrations of nevirapine at both 200 mg twice daily and 400 mg once 23 daily in an ethnically diverse population, Lancet. HIV Med, vol.364, issue.24, pp.29-48, 2004.

U. Likanonsakul, V. Thawornwa, K. Prommool, and . Ruxrungtham, A 30 randomized trial comparing plasma drug concentrations and efficacies between 2 31 nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitor-based regimens in HIV-infected 32 patients receiving rifampicin: the N2R Study, Clin Infect Dis, vol.48, issue.31, pp.1752-1759, 2009.

A. K. Tippabhotla, N. R. Singla, T. Thudi, R. K. Monif-mehlotra, M. N. Ziats et al., Pharmacokinetics 35 of lamivudine, zidovudine, and nevirapine administered as a fixed-dose 36 combination formulation versus coadministration of the individual products, J Clin 37 Pharmacol, vol.47, issue.32, pp.1381-1389, 2006.

J. Negredo, J. Vilaro, B. Costa, and . Clotet, Once-or twice-daily dosing of 43 nevirapine in HIV-infected adults: a population pharmacokinetics approach, p.44, 2008.

K. A. Gallant, R. F. Carson, C. Siliciano, and . Flexner, Marked 2 intraindividual variability in antiretroviral concentrations may limit the utility of 3 therapeutic drug monitoring, Clin Infect Dis, vol.42, issue.35 5, pp.1189-1196, 2006.

A. D. Endrenyi, G. S. Kashuba, P. Kabuye, and . Mugyenyi, Evaluation of the genetic component of 6 variability in CYP3A4 activity: a repeated drug administration method, Mbamanya, V. Natarajan, R. M. 9, pp.373-388, 2000.

C. Alfaro, E. Kityo, H. Formentini, and . Masur, Cytochrome P450 2B6 10 (CYP2B6) G516T influences nevirapine plasma concentrations in HIV-infected 11 patients in Uganda Mixed-Effects Models in S and S-PLUS, 1st 13 edition ed, 14 38. Puthanakit, T., P. Tanpaiboon, L. Aurpibul, T. R. Cressey, and V. 15, pp.86-91, 2000.

. Sirisanthana, Plasma efavirenz concentrations and the association with 16 CYP2B6-516G >T polymorphism in HIV-infected Thai children, Antivir Ther, vol.17, issue.18, pp.315-320, 2009.

L. Quteineh, C. Verstuyft, V. Furlan, A. Durrbach, A. Letierce et al., Genetic Polymorphism on Tacrolimus Daily Dose Requirements and Acute Rejection in Renal Graft Recipients, Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology, vol.18, issue.Suppl. 1, pp.546-552, 2008.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1742-7843.2008.00327.x

M. Rotger, S. Colombo, H. Furrer, G. Bleiber, T. Buclin et al., Influence of CYP2B6 24 polymorphism on plasma and intracellular concentrations and toxicity of efavirenz 25 and nevirapine in HIV-infected patients, Pharmacogenet Genomics, vol.23, issue.41, pp.1-5, 2005.

J. P. Rakotoambinina, J. M. Viard, C. Seigneurin, and . Rouzioux, Impact 30 of HIV-1 genetic diversity on plasma HIV-1 RNA Quantification: usefulness of the 31, 2007.

S. Wiznia, T. Nachman, S. A. Fenton, and . Spector, CYP2B6 genetic 39 variants are associated with nevirapine pharmacokinetics and clinical response in 40 HIV-1-infected children, Aids, vol.21, pp.2191-2199, 2007.

. Poizot-martin, Minimal effect of MDR1 and CYP3A5 genetic 44 polymorphisms on the pharmacokinetics of indinavir in HIV-infected patients, Br J, p.45, 2007.

B. Spire, P. Carrieri, P. Sopha, C. Protopopescu, N. Prak et al., Adherence to 2 antiretroviral therapy in patients enrolled in a comprehensive care program in 3, 2008.

A. Telenti and U. M. Zanger, Pharmacogenetics of Anti-HIV Drugs, Annual Review of Pharmacology and Toxicology, vol.48, issue.1, 2008.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.pharmtox.48.113006.094753

M. F. Seldin, K. , F. Lagrange, and F. Pehourcq, Analysis of East Asia genetic substructure using genome-wide 8 SNP arrays, 2008.

. Molimard, High-performance liquid chromatographic method for the 11 simultaneous determination of the six HIV-protease inhibitors and two non- 12 nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors in human plasma, Ther Drug Monit, vol.13, issue.14, pp.417-424, 2002.

V. A. Fischl, M. Johnson, J. P. Myers, and . Sommadossi, Population 20 pharmacokinetics of nevirapine, zidovudine, and didanosine in human 21 immunodeficiency virus-infected patients, The National Institute of Allergy and 22 Infectious Diseases AIDS Clinical Trials Group Protocol 241 Investigators. 23 Antimicrob Agents Chemother, pp.121-128, 1999.