Inflammatory responses in the cerebral cortex after ischemia in the P7 neonatal Rat.

Abstract : BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The contribution of inflammatory response to the pathogenesis of ischemic lesions in the neonate is still uncertain. This study described the chronological sequence of inflammatory changes that follow cerebral ischemia with reperfusion in the neonatal P7 rat. METHODS: P7 rats underwent left middle cerebral artery electrocoagulation associated with 1-hour left common carotid artery occlusion. The spatiotemporal pattern of cellular responses was characterized immunocytochemically with the use of antibodies against rat endogenous immunoglobulins to visualize the area of the breakdown of the blood-brain barrier. Infiltration of neutrophils and T lymphocytes was demonstrated by antibodies against myeloperoxidase and a pan-T cell marker, respectively. Antibodies ED1 and OX-42 were applied to identify microglial cells and macrophages. The response of astrocytes was shown with antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein. Cell survival was assessed by Bcl-2 expression. Cell death was demonstrated by DNA fragmentation with the use of the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP biotin nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay and Bax immunodetection. RESULTS: Endogenous immunoglobulin extravasation through the blood-brain barrier occurred at 2 hours of recirculation and persisted until 1 month after ischemia. Neutrophil infiltration began at 24 hours and peaked at 72 to 96 hours (30+/-3.4 neutrophils per 0.3 mm(2); P<0.0001), then disappeared at 14 days after ischemia. T cells were observed between 24 and 96 hours of reperfusion. Resident microglia-macrophages exhibited morphological remnants and expressed the cell death inhibitor Bcl-2 at 24 hours of recirculation. They became numerous within the next 48 hours and peaked at 7 days after ischemia. Phenotypic changes of resident astrocytes were apparent at 24 hours, and they proliferated between 48 hours and 7 days after ischemia. Progressively inflammatory cells showed DNA fragmentation and the cell death activator Bax expression. Cell elimination continued until there was a complete disappearance of the frontoparietal cortex. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate that perinatal ischemia with reperfusion triggers acute inflammatory responses with granulocytic cell infiltration, which may be involved in accelerating the destructive processes.
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Stroke, American Heart Association, 1999, 30 (9), pp.1916-23; discussion 1923-4
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N. Benjelloun, Sylvain Renolleau, Alfonso Represa, Yehezkel Ben-Ari, Christiane Charriaut-Marlangue. Inflammatory responses in the cerebral cortex after ischemia in the P7 neonatal Rat.. Stroke, American Heart Association, 1999, 30 (9), pp.1916-23; discussion 1923-4. 〈inserm-00486285〉

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