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Influence of alpha-1 glycoprotein acid concentrations and variants on atazanavir pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected patients included in the ANRS 107 trial.: alpha 1 glycoprotein acid polymorphism and atazanavir pharmacokinetics

Abstract : Atazanavir is an HIV-1 protease inhibitor with high protein binding in human plasma. The objectives were first to determine the in vitro binding characteristics of atazanavir and second to evaluate whether plasma protein binding to albumin and alpha-1 glycoprotein acid (AAG) influences the pharmacokinetics of atazanavir in HIV-infected patients. For the in vitro study, atazanavir protein binding characteristics were determined in AAG- and albumin-containing purified solutions. Atazanavir was found to bind AAG on a high-affinity saturable site (association constant, 4.61x10(5) liters/mol) and albumin on a low-affinity nonsaturable site. For the in vivo study, blood samples from 51 patients included in trial ANRS 107--Puzzle 2 were drawn prior to drug intake at week 6. For 10 patients included in the pharmacokinetic substudy, five additional blood samples were collected during one dosing interval at week 6. Atazanavir concentrations were assayed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Albumin concentrations, AAG concentrations, and phenotypes were also measured in these patients. Concentrations of atazanavir were modeled using a population approach. A one-compartment model with first-order absorption and elimination best described atazanavir pharmacokinetics. Atazanavir pharmacokinetic parameters and their interindividual variabilities were as follows: absorption rate constant (ka), 0.73 h(-1) (139.3%); apparent clearance (CL/F), 13.3 liters/h (26.7%); and apparent volume of distribution (V/F), 79.7 liters (27.0%). Atazanavir CL/F decreased significantly when alanine aminotransferase and/or AAG levels increased (P<0.01). The ORM1*S phenotype also significantly increased atazanavir V/F (P<0.05). These in vivo results indicate that atazanavir pharmacokinetics is moderately influenced by its protein binding, especially to AAG, without expected clinical consequences.
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Aurélie Barrail-Tran, France Mentré, Claudine Cosson, Christophe Piketty, Corine Chazallon, et al.. Influence of alpha-1 glycoprotein acid concentrations and variants on atazanavir pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected patients included in the ANRS 107 trial.: alpha 1 glycoprotein acid polymorphism and atazanavir pharmacokinetics. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, American Society for Microbiology, 2010, 54 (2), pp.614-9. ⟨10.1128/AAC.00797-09⟩. ⟨inserm-00471277⟩

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