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[Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning]

Abstract : Cadmium is a metallic impurity in various minerals. The two main cadmium exposure sources in general population are food and tobacco smoking. Its industrial exploitation has grown in the early twentieth century. Cadmium is used in accumulators or alkaline batteries (80%) and in pigments for paints or plastics (10%), in electrolytic process by deposit or by cadmium plating on metals or to reduce melting points (welding rods...). Cadmium is a cumulative toxic substance whose half-time for elimination is about 20 to 40 years and it is mainly stored in the liver and kidneys. Inhalation of cadmium oxide fumes may cause inhalation fevers or chemical pneumonitis. Cadmium chronic poisoning causes mainly renal tubulopathy and could be the cause of osteomalacia and diffuse osteoporosis. Cadmium is classified as certain carcinogen agent for humans by International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). The most relevant biological index exposure is the urinary cadmium. According to literature, no chelating agent can be still used in human cadmium poisonings. In France, some diseases caused by occupational exposure to cadmium may be compensated.
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Submitted on : Monday, March 8, 2010 - 10:31:38 AM
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Pascal Andujar, Lynda Bensefa-Colas, Alexis Descatha. [Acute and chronic cadmium poisoning]. La Revue De Médecine Interne, Elsevier, 2010, 31 (2), pp.107-15. ⟨10.1016/j.revmed.2009.02.029⟩. ⟨inserm-00461994⟩



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