Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring cell death in higher eukaryotes.

Lorenzo Galluzzi 1 Stuart Aaronson 2 John Abrams 3 Emad Alnemri 4 David Andrews 5 Eric Baehrecke 6 Nicolas Bazan 7 Mikhail Blagosklonny 8 Klas Blomgren 9, 10 Christopher Borner 11 Dale Bredesen 12 Catherine Brenner 13 Maria Castedo 1 John Cidlowski 14 Aaron Ciechanover 15 Gerry Cohen 16 Vincenzo de Laurenzi 17 Ruggero de Maria 18, 19 Mohanish Deshmukh 20 Brian Dynlacht 21 Wafik El-Deiry 22 Richard Flavell 23, 24 Simone Fulda 25 Carmen Garrido 26 Pierre Golstein 27 Marie-Lise Gougeon 28 Douglas Green 29 Hinrich Gronemeyer 30 György Hajnóczky 31 J. Marie Hardwick 32 Michael Hengartner 33 Hidenori Ichijo 34 Marja Jäättelä 35 Olivier Kepp 1 Adi Kimchi 36 Daniel Klionsky 37 Richard Knight 38 Sally Kornbluth 39 Sharad Kumar 40 Beth Levine 24, 41 Stuart Lipton 42, 43, 44, 45 Enrico Lugli 46 Frank Madeo 47 Walter Malomi 48 Jean-Christophe Marine 49, 50 Seamus Martin 51 Jan Paul Medema 52, 53 Patrick Mehlen 54, 55 Gerry Melino 16, 56 Ute Moll 57, 58, 59 Eugenia Morselli 1 Shigekazu Nagata 60, 61 Donald Nicholson 62 Pierluigi Nicotera 16 Gabriel Nuñez 63 Moshe Oren 64 Josef Penninger 65 Shazib Pervaiz 66, 67, 68 Marcus Peter 69 Mauro Piacentini 70, 71 Jochen Prehn 72 Hamsa Puthalakath 73 Gabriel Rabinovich 74 Rosario Rizzuto 75 Cecilia Rodrigues 76 David Rubinsztein 77 Thomas Rudel 78 Luca Scorrano 79, 80 Hans-Uwe Simon 81 Hermann Steller 24, 82 Jürg Tschopp 83 Yoshihide Tsujimoto 84 Peter Vandenabeele 50, 85 Ilio Vitale 1 Karen Vousden 86 Richard Youle 87 Junying Yuan 88 Boris Zhivotovsky 89 Guido Kroemer 1
Abstract : Cell death is essential for a plethora of physiological processes, and its deregulation characterizes numerous human diseases. Thus, the in-depth investigation of cell death and its mechanisms constitutes a formidable challenge for fundamental and applied biomedical research, and has tremendous implications for the development of novel therapeutic strategies. It is, therefore, of utmost importance to standardize the experimental procedures that identify dying and dead cells in cell cultures and/or in tissues, from model organisms and/or humans, in healthy and/or pathological scenarios. Thus far, dozens of methods have been proposed to quantify cell death-related parameters. However, no guidelines exist regarding their use and interpretation, and nobody has thoroughly annotated the experimental settings for which each of these techniques is most appropriate. Here, we provide a nonexhaustive comparison of methods to detect cell death with apoptotic or nonapoptotic morphologies, their advantages and pitfalls. These guidelines are intended for investigators who study cell death, as well as for reviewers who need to constructively critique scientific reports that deal with cellular demise. Given the difficulties in determining the exact number of cells that have passed the point-of-no-return of the signaling cascades leading to cell death, we emphasize the importance of performing multiple, methodologically unrelated assays to quantify dying and dead cells.
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Submitted on : Monday, September 28, 2009 - 5:52:42 PM
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Lorenzo Galluzzi, Stuart Aaronson, John Abrams, Emad Alnemri, David Andrews, et al.. Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring cell death in higher eukaryotes.. Cell Death and Differentiation, Nature Publishing Group, 2009, 16 (8), pp.1093-107. ⟨10.1038/cdd.2009.44⟩. ⟨inserm-00420382⟩

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