A. Trichopoulou, A. Kouris-blazos, and T. Vassilakou, and recommended reading Papers of particular interest have been highlighted as: ? of special interest ?? of outstanding interest 1 Diet and survival of elderly Greeks: a link to the past, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.61, pp.1346-1350, 1995.

2. Trichopoulou, A. Kouris-blazos, A. Wahlqvist, and M. , Diet and overall survival in elderly people, BMJ, vol.311, issue.7018, pp.1457-60, 1995.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.311.7018.1457

3. Trichopoulou, A. Costacou, T. Bamia, C. Trichopoulos, and D. , Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet and Survival in a Greek Population, New England Journal of Medicine, vol.348, issue.26, pp.2599-608, 2003.
DOI : 10.1056/NEJMoa025039

F. Sofi, F. Cesari, R. Abbate, G. Gensini, and A. Casini, Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: meta-analysis, BMJ, vol.337, issue.sep11 2, p.1344, 2008.
DOI : 10.1136/bmj.a1344

B. Roman, L. Carta, M. Martinez-gonzalez, and L. Serra-majem, Effectiveness of the Mediterranean diet in the elderly, Clin Interv Aging, vol.3, pp.97-109, 2008.

V. Solfrizzi, C. Capurso, D. Introno, and A. , Lifestyle-related factors in predementia and dementia syndromes, Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, vol.8, issue.1, pp.133-58, 2008.
DOI : 10.1586/14737175.8.1.133

C. Brayne, The elephant in the room ??? healthy brains in later life, epidemiology and public health, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.35, issue.3, pp.233-242, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/nrn2091

A. Lobo, L. Launer, and L. Fratiglioni, Prevalence of dementia and major subtypes in Europe: A collaborative study of population-based cohorts. Neurologic Diseases in the Elderly Research Group, Neurology, vol.54, pp.4-9, 2000.

R. Petersen, Mild cognitive impairment as a diagnostic entity, Journal of Internal Medicine, vol.57, issue.3, pp.183-94, 2004.
DOI : 10.1037//0894-4105.13.1.121

F. Gomez-pinilla, Brain foods: the effects of nutrients on brain function, Nature Reviews Neuroscience, vol.15, issue.7, pp.568-78, 2008.
DOI : 10.1038/nrn2421

C. Bamia, P. Orfanos, and P. Ferrari, Dietary patterns among older Europeans: the EPIC-Elderly study, British Journal of Nutrition, vol.92, issue.01, pp.100-113, 2005.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.ejcn.1601232

A. Keys, A. Menotti, and M. Karvonen, THE DIET AND 15-YEAR DEATH RATE IN THE SEVEN COUNTRIES STUDY, American Journal of Epidemiology, vol.124, issue.6, pp.903-918, 1986.
DOI : 10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a114480

W. Willett, F. Sacks, and A. Trichopoulou, Mediterranean diet pyramid: a cultural model for healthy eating, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.61, pp.1402-1406, 1995.

1. Sofi and F. , The Mediterranean diet revisited: evidence of its effectiveness grows, Current Opinion in Cardiology, vol.24, issue.5, 2009.
DOI : 10.1097/HCO.0b013e32832f056e

G. Kourlaba and D. Panagiotakos, Dietary quality indices and human health: A review, Maturitas, vol.62, issue.1, pp.1-8, 2009.
DOI : 10.1016/j.maturitas.2008.11.021

M. Rumawas, J. Dwyer, N. Mckeown, J. Meigs, G. Rogers et al., The development of the Mediterranean-style dietary pattern score and its application to the American diet in the Framingham Offspring Cohort The use of indexes evaluating the adherence to the Mediterranean diet in epidemiological studies: a review, J Nutr Public Health Nutr, vol.1399, pp.1150-1156, 2006.

1. Feart, C. Samieri, C. Rondeau, and V. , Adherence to a Mediterranean Diet, Cognitive Decline, and Risk of Dementia, JAMA, vol.302, issue.6, pp.638-686, 2009.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2009.1146

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00396217

1. Scarmeas, N. Stern, Y. Tang, M. Mayeux, R. Luchsinger et al., Mediterranean diet and risk for Alzheimer's disease, Annals of Neurology, vol.19, issue.6, pp.912-933, 2006.
DOI : 10.1002/ana.20854

E. Devore, F. Grodstein, and F. Van-rooij, Dietary intake of fish and omega-3 fatty acids in relation to long-term dementia risk, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol.90, issue.1, pp.170-176, 2009.
DOI : 10.3945/ajcn.2008.27037

E. Kroger, R. Verreault, and P. Carmichael, Omega-3 fatty acids and risk of dementia: the Canadian Study of Health and Aging, American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol.90, issue.1, pp.184-92, 2009.
DOI : 10.3945/ajcn.2008.26987

A. Kant, Dietary patterns and health outcomes, Journal of the American Dietetic Association, vol.104, issue.4, pp.615-650, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.jada.2004.01.010

A. Lichtenstein, L. Appel, and M. Brands, Diet and lifestyle recommendations revision 2006: a scientific statement from the, American Heart Association Nutrition Committee. Circulation, vol.114, pp.82-96, 2006.

S. Renaud, M. De-lorgeril, and J. Delaye, Cretan Mediterranean diet for prevention of coronary heart disease, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.61, pp.1360-1367, 1995.
URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00395480

J. Dai, D. Jones, and J. Goldberg, Association between adherence to the Mediterranean diet and oxidative stress, Am J Clin Nutr, vol.88, pp.1364-70, 2008.

D. Giugliano and K. Esposito, Mediterranean diet and metabolic diseases, Current Opinion in Internal Medicine, vol.7, issue.2, pp.63-71, 2008.
DOI : 10.1097/MOL.0b013e3282f2fa4d

D. Panagiotakos, K. Dimakopoulou, and K. Katsouyanni, Mediterranean diet and inflammatory response in myocardial infarction survivors, International Journal of Epidemiology, vol.38, issue.3, pp.856-66, 2009.
DOI : 10.1093/ije/dyp142

2. Scarmeas, N. Luchsinger, J. Schupf, and N. , Physical Activity, Diet, and Risk of Alzheimer Disease, JAMA, vol.302, issue.6, pp.627-664, 2009.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2009.1144

3. Scarmeas, N. Stern, Y. Mayeux, R. Luchsinger, and J. , Mediterranean Diet, Alzheimer Disease, and Vascular Mediation, Archives of Neurology, vol.63, issue.12, pp.1709-1726, 2006.
DOI : 10.1001/archneur.63.12.noc60109

3. Scarmeas, N. Stern, Y. Mayeux, R. Manly, J. Schupf et al., Mediterranean Diet and Mild Cognitive Impairment, Archives of Neurology, vol.66, issue.2, pp.216-241, 2009.
DOI : 10.1001/archneurol.2008.536

D. Knopman, Mediterranean Diet and Late-Life Cognitive Impairment, JAMA, vol.302, issue.6, pp.686-693, 2009.
DOI : 10.1001/jama.2009.1149

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2880895

H. Amieva, L. Goff, M. Millet, and X. , Prodromal Alzheimer's disease: Successive emergence of the clinical symptoms, Annals of Neurology, vol.79, issue.5, pp.492-500, 2008.
DOI : 10.1002/ana.21509

L. Serra-majem, B. Roman, and R. Estruch, Scientific Evidence of Interventions Using the Mediterranean Diet: A Systematic Review, Nutrition Reviews, vol.64, issue.2, pp.27-47, 2006.
DOI : 10.1301/nr.2006.feb.S27-S47