S. P. Otto and J. Whitton, Polyploid Incidence and Evolution, Annual Review of Genetics, vol.34, issue.1, pp.401-437, 2000.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.genet.34.1.401

S. Gupta, Hepatic polyploidy and liver growth control, Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol.10, issue.3, pp.161-171, 2000.
DOI : 10.1006/scbi.2000.0317

W. Y. Brodsky and I. V. Uryvaeva, Cell Polyploidy: Its Relation to Tissue Growth and Function, Int. Rev. Cytol, vol.50, pp.275-332, 1977.
DOI : 10.1016/S0074-7696(08)60100-X

F. L. Van-der-heijden, J. , and J. , Polyploidy in the human myometrium, Z. Mikrosk. Anat. Forsch, vol.89, pp.18-26, 1975.

M. L. Hixon, Cks1 Mediates Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Polyploidization, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.275, issue.51, pp.40434-40442, 2000.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M005059200

H. W. Vliegen, Polyploidy of myocyte nuclei in pressure overloaded human hearts: a flow cytometric study in left and right ventricular myocardium, Am. J. Cardiovasc. Pathol, vol.5, pp.27-31, 1995.

G. U. Auer, M. Backdahl, G. M. Forsslund, and U. G. Askensten, Ploidy levels in nonneoplastic and neoplastic thyroid cells, Anal. Quant. Cytol. Histol, vol.7, pp.97-106, 1985.

Z. Storchova and D. Pellman, From polyploidy to aneuploidy, genome instability and cancer, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol.5, issue.1, pp.45-54, 2004.
DOI : 10.1038/nrm1276

N. J. Ganem, Z. Storchova, and D. Pellman, Tetraploidy, aneuploidy and cancer, Current Opinion in Genetics & Development, vol.17, issue.2, pp.151-162, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.gde.2007.02.011

S. Celton-morizur and C. Desdouets, Polyploidization of liver cells, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4419-6199-0_8

P. O. Seglen, DNA ploidy and autophagic protein degradation as determinants of hepatocellular growth and survival, Cell Biology and Toxicology, vol.13, issue.4/5, pp.301-315, 1997.
DOI : 10.1023/A:1007487425047

H. Toyoda, Changes to hepatocyte ploidy and binuclearity profiles during human chronic viral hepatitis, Gut, vol.54, issue.2, pp.297-302, 2005.
DOI : 10.1136/gut.2004.043893

G. R. Gorla, H. Malhi, and S. Gupta, Polyploidy associated with oxidative injury attenuates proliferative potential of cells, J. Cell Sci, vol.114, pp.2943-2951, 2001.

S. Madra, J. Styles, and A. G. Smith, Perturbation of hepatocyte nuclear populations induced by iron and polychlorinated biphenyls in C57BL/10ScSn mice during carcinogenesis, Carcinogenesis, vol.16, issue.4, pp.719-727, 1995.
DOI : 10.1093/carcin/16.4.719

Y. Muramatsu, Increased polyploid incidence is associated with abnormal copper accumulation in the liver of LEC mutant rat, Res. Commun. Mol. Pathol. Pharmacol, vol.107, pp.129-136, 2000.

S. H. Sigal, Partial hepatectomyinduced polyploidy attenuates hepatocyte replication and activates cell aging events, Am. J. Physiol, vol.276, pp.1260-1272, 1999.

M. V. Taylor, Muscle Differentiation: How Two Cells Become One, Current Biology, vol.12, issue.6, pp.224-228, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0960-9822(02)00757-1

URL : http://doi.org/10.1016/s0960-9822(02)00757-1

A. Vignery, Macrophage Fusion, Methods Mol. Biol, vol.475, pp.149-161, 2008.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-59745-250-2_9

M. L. Hixon and A. Gualberto, Vascular Smooth Muscle Polyploidization: From Mitotic Checkpoints to Hypertension, Cell Cycle, vol.2, issue.2, pp.105-110, 2003.
DOI : 10.4161/cc.2.2.341

K. Ravid, J. Lu, J. M. Zimmet, and M. R. Jones, Roads to polyploidy: The megakaryocyte example, Journal of Cellular Physiology, vol.16, issue.1, pp.7-20, 2002.
DOI : 10.1002/jcp.10035

J. E. Guidotti, Liver Cell Polyploidization: A Pivotal Role for Binuclear Hepatocytes, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.278, issue.21, pp.19095-19101, 2003.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M300982200

G. Margall-ducos, Liver tetraploidization is controlled by a new process of incomplete cytokinesis, Journal of Cell Science, vol.120, issue.20, pp.3633-3639, 2007.
DOI : 10.1242/jcs.016907

J. Girard, P. Ferre, J. P. Pegorier, and P. H. Duee, Adaptations of glucose and fatty acid metabolism during perinatal period and suckling-weaning transition, Physiol. Rev, vol.72, pp.507-562, 1992.

H. Barbason, C. Herens, M. C. Mormont, and B. Bouzahzah, Circadian synchronization of hepatocyte proliferation in young rats: the role played by adrenal hormones, Cell Proliferation, vol.5, issue.1, pp.57-67, 1987.
DOI : 10.1016/0039-128X(73)90035-4

T. Matsuo, Control Mechanism of the Circadian Clock for Timing of Cell Division in Vivo, Science, vol.302, issue.5643, pp.255-259, 2003.
DOI : 10.1126/science.1086271

C. H. Warden and J. S. Fisler, Comparisons of Diets Used in Animal Models of High-Fat Feeding, Cell Metabolism, vol.7, issue.4, p.277, 2008.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cmet.2008.03.014

P. D. Denechaud, ChREBP, but not LXRs, is required for the induction of glucose-regulated genes in mouse liver, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.118, pp.956-964, 2008.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI34314

P. Lindstrom, Mice], The Scientific World JOURNAL, vol.7, pp.666-685, 2007.
DOI : 10.1100/tsw.2007.117

P. T. Bhaskar and N. Hay, The Two TORCs and Akt, Developmental Cell, vol.12, issue.4, pp.487-502, 2007.
DOI : 10.1016/j.devcel.2007.03.020

S. Wullschleger, R. Loewith, and M. N. Hall, TOR Signaling in Growth and Metabolism, Cell, vol.124, issue.3, pp.471-484, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2006.01.016

R. Loewith, Two TOR Complexes, Only One of which Is Rapamycin Sensitive, Have Distinct Roles in Cell Growth Control, Molecular Cell, vol.10, issue.3, pp.457-468, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S1097-2765(02)00636-6

E. Jacinto, Mammalian TOR complex 2 controls the actin cytoskeleton and is rapamycin insensitive, Nature Cell Biology, vol.59, issue.11, pp.1122-1128, 2004.
DOI : 10.1006/jmbi.2000.4042

T. Galitski, A. J. Saldanha, C. A. Styles, E. S. Lander, and G. R. Fink, Ploidy Regulation of Gene Expression, Science, vol.285, issue.5425, pp.251-254, 1999.
DOI : 10.1126/science.285.5425.251

H. Raslova, Interrelation between polyploidization and megakaryocyte differentiation: a gene profiling approach, Blood, vol.109, issue.8, pp.3225-3234, 2007.
DOI : 10.1182/blood-2006-07-037838

T. Fujiwara, Cytokinesis failure generating tetraploids promotes tumorigenesis in p53-null cells, Nature, vol.2, issue.7061, pp.1043-1047, 2005.
DOI : 10.1101/gad.1109403

S. J. Leevers and H. Mcneill, Controlling the size of organs and organisms, Current Opinion in Cell Biology, vol.17, issue.6, pp.604-609, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.ceb.2005.09.008

M. Y. Wu, M. Cully, D. Andersen, and S. J. Leevers, Insulin delays the progression of Drosophila cells through G2/M by activating the dTOR/dRaptor complex, The EMBO Journal, vol.156, issue.2, pp.371-379, 2007.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.emboj.7601487

U. S. Eggert, T. J. Mitchison, and C. M. Field, Animal Cytokinesis: From Parts List to Mechanisms, Annual Review of Biochemistry, vol.75, issue.1, pp.543-566, 2006.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.biochem.74.082803.133425

G. Normand and R. W. King, Understanding Cytokinesis Failure, 2009.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4419-6199-0_3

D. D. Sarbassov, Rictor, a Novel Binding Partner of mTOR, Defines a Rapamycin-Insensitive and Raptor-Independent Pathway that Regulates the Cytoskeleton, Current Biology, vol.14, issue.14, pp.1296-1302, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cub.2004.06.054

N. Kakinuma, B. C. Roy, Y. Zhu, Y. Wang, and R. Kiyama, Kank regulates RhoA-dependent formation of actin stress fibers and cell migration via 14-3-3 in PI3K???Akt signaling, The Journal of Cell Biology, vol.59, issue.3, pp.537-549, 2008.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M107709200

G. J. Buttrick, W. , and J. G. , PI3-K and GSK-3: Akt-ing together with microtubules, Cell Cycle, vol.7, issue.17, pp.2621-2625, 2008.
DOI : 10.4161/cc.7.17.6514