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Phospholipase D2 regulates endothelial permeability through cytoskeleton reorganization and occludin downregulation.: PLD2 and endothelial permeability

Abstract : Endothelial permeability is controlled by adhesive strengths which connect cells to each other through interendothelial junctions and by contractile forces associated with cytoskeleton reorganization. Phospholipase D (PLD) activation resulting in the generation of phosphatidic acid (PA) is increasingly recognized as a key event in the initiation of various cell responses. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUV-EC), enhancement of intracellular PA by a variety of approaches increased the permeability of endothelial cell monolayers and induced stress fibre formation. Using adenovirus-mediated overexpression and siRNA silencing, we showed that PLD2 but not PLD1 was involved in the enhancement of basal permeability through cytoskeleton reorganization. Furthermore, PLD2 overexpression induced ERK1/2 activation and downregulated the expression of occludin, a major component of tight junctions. A substantial part of PLD2 protein was associated with the low-density caveolin-rich fractions isolated on sucrose gradients. The Raf-1 specific inhibitor GW-5074 drastically reduced hyperpermeability induced by PLD2 overexpression, and inhibited PA-mediated increase of endothelial permeability and ERK1/2 activation. On the whole, the present results demonstrate the selective role of PLD2 isoform in the control of endothelial permeability through a mechanism involving both stress fibre formation and contraction, and occludin downregulation, possibly resulting from PA-mediated activation of Raf-1.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 18, 2009 - 8:16:52 AM
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Caroline Zeiller, Saïda Mebarek, Rami Jaafar, Luciano Pirola, Michel Lagarde, et al.. Phospholipase D2 regulates endothelial permeability through cytoskeleton reorganization and occludin downregulation.: PLD2 and endothelial permeability. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Molecular Cell Research, Elsevier, 2009, 1793 (7), pp.1236-49. ⟨10.1016/j.bbamcr.2009.04.001⟩. ⟨inserm-00396389⟩

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