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On the regulation of cellular energetics in health and disease.

Abstract : Very recent experimental data, obtained by using the permeabilized cell technique or tissue homogenates for investigation of the mechanisms of regulation of respiration in the cells in vivo, are shortly summarized. In these studies, surprisingly high values of apparent Km for ADP, exceeding that for isolated mitochondria in vitro by more than order of magnitude, were recorded for heart, slow twitch skeletal muscle, hepatocytes, brain tissue homogenates but not for fast twitch skeletal muscle. Mitochondrial swelling in the hypo-osmotic medium resulted in the sharp decrease of the value of Km for ADP in correlation with the degree of rupture of mitochondrial outer membrane, as determined by the cytochrome c test. Very similar effect was observed when trypsin was used for treatment of skinned fibers, permeabilized cells or homogenates. It is concluded that, in many but not all types of cells, the permeability of the mitochondria outer membrane for ADP is controlled by some cytoplasmic protein factor(s). Since colchicine and taxol were not found to change high values of the apparent Km for ADP, the participation of microtubular system seems to be excluded in this kind of control or respiration but studies of the roles of other cytoskeletal structures seem to be of high interest. In acute ischemia we observed rapid increase of the permeability of the mitochondrial outer membrane for ADP due to mitochondrial swelling and concomitant loss of creatine control of respiration as a result of dissociation of creatine kinase from the inner mitochondrial membrane. The extent of these damages was decreased by use of proper procedures of myocardial protection showing that outer mitochondrial membrane permeability and creatine control of respiration are valuable indices of myocardial preservation. In contrast to acute ischemia, chronic hypoxia seems to improve the cardiac cell energetics as seen from better postischemic recovery of phosphocreatine, and phosphocreatine overshoot after inotropic stimulation. In general, adaptational possibilities and pathophysiological changes in the mitochondrial outer membrane system point to the central role such a system may play in regulation of cellular energetics in vivo.
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https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-00390245
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Submitted on : Monday, June 1, 2009 - 12:55:36 PM
Last modification on : Friday, November 6, 2020 - 3:45:36 AM

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Valdur Saks, Toomas Tiivel, Laurence Kay, Valérie Novel-Chaté, Z. Daneshrad, et al.. On the regulation of cellular energetics in health and disease.. Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, Springer Verlag, 1996, 160-161, pp.195-208. ⟨10.1007/BF00240050⟩. ⟨inserm-00390245⟩

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