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Recovery of skeletal muscle mass after extensive injury: positive effects of increased contractile activity.

Abstract : The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that increasing physical activity by running exercise could favor the recovery of muscle mass after extensive injury and to determine the main molecular mechanisms involved. Left soleus muscles of female Wistar rats were degenerated by notexin injection before animals were assigned to either a sedentary group or an exercised group. Both regenerating and contralateral intact muscles from active and sedentary rats were removed 5, 7, 14, 21, 28 and 42 days after injury (n = 8 rats/group). Increasing contractile activity through running exercise during muscle regeneration ensured the full recovery of muscle mass and muscle cross-sectional area as soon as 21 days after injury, whereas muscle weight remained lower even 42 days postinjury in sedentary rats. Proliferator cell nuclear antigen and MyoD protein expression went on longer in active rats than in sedentary rats. Myogenin protein expression was higher in active animals than in sedentary animals 21 days postinjury. The Akt-mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway was activated early during the regeneration process, with further increases of mTOR phosphorylation and its downstream effectors, eukaryotic initiation factor-4E-binding protein-1 and p70(s6k), in active rats compared with sedentary rats (days 7-14). The exercise-induced increase in mTOR phosphorylation, independently of Akt, was associated with decreased levels of phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase. Taken together, these results provided evidence that increasing contractile activity during muscle regeneration ensured early and full recovery of muscle mass and suggested that these beneficial effects may be due to a longer proliferative step of myogenic cells and activation of mTOR signaling, independently of Akt, during the maturation step of muscle regeneration.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, October 21, 2009 - 6:39:22 PM
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Hélène Richard-Bulteau, Bernard Serrurier, Brigitte Crassous, Sébastien Banzet, André Peinnequin, et al.. Recovery of skeletal muscle mass after extensive injury: positive effects of increased contractile activity.. American Journal of Physiology - Cell Physiology, American Physiological Society, 2008, 294 (2), pp.C467-76. ⟨10.1152/ajpcell.00355.2007⟩. ⟨inserm-00385620⟩



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