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A glia-neuron alanine/ammonium shuttle is central to energy metabolism in bee retina.

Jonathan A. Coles 1 Jean-Louis Martiel 2 Karolina Laskowska 1 
2 TIMB
TIMC-IMAG - Techniques de l'Ingénierie Médicale et de la Complexité - Informatique, Mathématiques et Applications, Grenoble - UMR 5525
Abstract : It has been proposed that glial cells may supply carbon fuel to neurons and also that there are fluxes of ammonium from neurons to glia. We have investigated both these proposals in Apis retinal slices, in which virtually all the mitochondria are in the photoreceptor neurons. Normally the superfusate contained no substrate of energy metabolism; addition of glucose or alanine did not increase oxygen consumption (QO2), confirming that the neurons received adequate substrate from glycogen in the glia. 1,4-Dideoxy-1,4-imino-D-arabinitol (DAB, 100 microm), an inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase, progressively decreased QO2. This decrease was reversed by alanine but not glucose. Ammonium-sensitive microelectrodes did not detect significant extracellular [NH(4)(+)] ([NH(4)(+)](e)) in slices superfused with normal superfusate. Removal of Cl(-), necessary for cotransport of NH(4)(+) into the glia, increased [NH(4)(+)](e) so that at the end of 2 min photostimulation mean [NH(4)(+)](e) was 0.442 mM (S.E.M. = 0.082 mM, n = 16). In 0 Cl(-), [NH(4)(+)](e) was reduced by 2-(methylamino)isobutyrate (MeAIB) an inhibitor of alanine transport. MeAIB also blocked oxidation of alanine in the presence of DAB, but did not decrease QO2 in normal superfusate. Lactate (l and d) and pyruvate (but not glucose) increased QO2 in DAB and decreased [NH(4)(+)](e) in 0 Cl(-). These results strengthen the evidence that in superfused retinal slices, glucose is metabolized exclusively in the glia, which supply alanine to the neurons, and that ammonium returns to the glia. They also show that another fuel (perhaps lactate) can be supplied by the glia to the neurons.
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https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-00338173
Contributor : Jean-Louis Martiel Connect in order to contact the contributor
Submitted on : Tuesday, November 11, 2008 - 6:48:38 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, October 20, 2021 - 12:47:25 AM

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Jonathan A. Coles, Jean-Louis Martiel, Karolina Laskowska. A glia-neuron alanine/ammonium shuttle is central to energy metabolism in bee retina.. The Journal of Physiology, Wiley, 2008, 586 (8), pp.2077-91. ⟨10.1113/jphysiol.2007.148734⟩. ⟨inserm-00338173⟩

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