M. I. Garcia, P. Gounon, P. Courcoux, A. Labigne, L. Bouguenec et al., The afimbrial adhesive sheath encoded by the afa-3 gene cluster of pathogenic Escherichia coli is composed of two adhesins, Molecular Microbiology, vol.19, issue.4, pp.683-693, 1996.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1996.394935.x

B. Foxman, L. Zhang, P. Tallman, K. Palin, C. Rode et al., Virulence Characteristics of Escherichia coli Causing First Urinary Tract Infection Predict Risk of Second Infection, Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol.172, issue.6, pp.1536-1541, 1995.
DOI : 10.1093/infdis/172.6.1536

A. L. Servin, Pathogenesis of Afa/Dr Diffusely Adhering Escherichia coli, Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol.18, issue.2, pp.264-292, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/CMR.18.2.264-292.2005

B. Nowicki, J. Moulds, R. Hull, and S. Hull, Dr Adhesins Bind Independently to DAF and N-domain of CEA, Infect. Immun, vol.56, pp.1057-1060, 1988.

J. Guignot, I. Peiffer, M. F. Bernet-camard, D. M. Lublin, C. Carnoy et al., Recruitment of CD55 and CD66e Brush Border-Associated Glycosylphosphatidylinositol-Anchored Proteins by Members of the Afa/Dr Diffusely Adhering Family of Escherichia coli That Infect the Human Polarized Intestinal Caco-2/TC7 Cells, Infection and Immunity, vol.68, issue.6, pp.3554-3563, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.68.6.3554-3563.2000

M. E. Medof, E. I. Walter, J. L. Rutgers, D. M. Knowles, and V. Nussenzweig, Identification of the complement decay-accelerating factor (DAF) on epithelium and glandular cells and in body fluids, Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.165, issue.3, pp.848-864, 1987.
DOI : 10.1084/jem.165.3.848

S. Hammarstrom, The carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) family: structures, suggested functions and expression in normal and malignant tissues, Seminars in Cancer Biology, vol.9, issue.2, pp.67-81, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/scbi.1998.0119

C. N. Berger, O. Billker, T. F. Meyer, A. L. Servin, and I. Kansau, Differential recognition of members of the carcinoembryonic antigen family by Afa/Dr adhesins of diffusely adhering Escherichia coli (Afa/Dr DAEC), Molecular Microbiology, vol.23, issue.Suppl. 1, pp.963-983, 2004.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2958.2004.04033.x

B. Obrink, CEA adhesion molecules: multifunctional proteins with signal-regulatory properties, Current Opinion in Cell Biology, vol.9, issue.5, pp.616-626, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0955-0674(97)80114-7

F. Prall, P. Nollau, M. Neumaier, H. D. Haubeck, Z. Drzeniek et al., CD66a (BGP), an adhesion molecule of the carcinoembryonic antigen family, is expressed in epithelium, endothelium, and myeloid cells in a wide range of normal human tissues., Journal of Histochemistry & Cytochemistry, vol.44, issue.1, pp.35-41, 1996.
DOI : 10.1177/44.1.8543780

Y. Kodera, K. Isobe, M. Yamauchi, T. Satta, T. Hasegawa et al., Expression of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and nonspecific crossreacting antigen (NCA) in gastrointestinal cancer; the correlation with degree of differentiation, British Journal of Cancer, vol.68, issue.1, pp.130-136, 1993.
DOI : 10.1038/bjc.1993.300

D. Metze, R. Bhardwaj, U. Amann, A. M. Eades-perner, M. Neumaier et al., Glycoproteins of the Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Family Are Expressed in Sweat and Sebaceous Glands of Human Fetal and Adult Skin, Journal of Investigative Dermatology, vol.106, issue.1, pp.64-69, 1996.
DOI : 10.1111/1523-1747.ep12327258

M. Virji, S. M. Watt, S. Barker, K. Makepeace, and R. Doyonnas, The N-domain of the human CD66a adhesion molecule is a target for Opa proteins of Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Molecular Microbiology, vol.22, issue.5, pp.929-939, 1996.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1996.01548.x

M. Virji, D. Evans, A. Hadfield, F. Grunert, A. M. Teixeira et al., Critical determinants of host receptor targeting by Neisseria meningitidis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae : identification of Opa adhesiotopes on the N-domain of CD66 molecules, Molecular Microbiology, vol.149, issue.3, pp.538-551, 1999.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1998.00670.x

M. Virji, D. Evans, J. Griffith, D. Hill, L. Serino et al., Carcinoembryonic antigens are targeted by diverse strains of typable and non-typable Haemophilus influenzae, Molecular Microbiology, vol.10, issue.4, pp.784-795, 2000.
DOI : 10.1146/annurev.immunol.6.1.381

M. P. Bos, M. Kuroki, A. Krop-watorek, D. Hogan, and R. J. Belland, CD66 receptor specificity exhibited by neisserial Opa variants is controlled by protein determinants in CD66 N-domains, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.95, issue.16, pp.9584-9589, 1998.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.95.16.9584

M. Toleman, E. Aho, and M. Virji, Expression of pathogen-like Opa adhesins in commensal Neisseria: genetic and functional analysis, Cellular Microbiology, vol.84, issue.1, pp.33-44, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1999.01514.x

D. J. Hill and M. Virji, A novel cell-binding mechanism of Moraxella catarrhalis ubiquitous surface protein UspA: specific targeting of the N-domain of carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecules by UspA1, Molecular Microbiology, vol.6, issue.1, pp.117-129, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2003.03433.x

D. J. Hill, M. A. Toleman, D. J. Evans, S. Villullas, L. Van-alphen et al., The variable P5 proteins of typeable and non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae target human CEACAM1, Molecular Microbiology, vol.149, issue.4, pp.850-862, 2001.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.2001.02233.x

T. Maniatis, Molecular Cloning: A Laboratory Manual, 1982.

D. G. Myszka, Improving biosensor analysis, Journal of Molecular Recognition, vol.273, issue.5, pp.279-284, 1999.
DOI : 10.1002/(SICI)1099-1352(199909/10)12:5<279::AID-JMR473>3.0.CO;2-3

K. L. Anderson, J. Billington, D. Pettigrew, E. Cota, P. Simpson et al., An Atomic Resolution Model for Assembly, Architecture, and Function of the Dr Adhesins, Molecular Cell, vol.15, issue.4, pp.647-657, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.molcel.2004.08.003

C. Carnoy and S. L. Moseley, Mutational analysis of receptor binding mediated by the Dr family of Escherichia coli adhesins, Molecular Microbiology, vol.23, issue.2, pp.365-379, 1997.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2958.1997.2231590.x

D. Pettigrew, K. L. Anderson, J. Billington, E. Cota, P. Simpson et al., High Resolution Studies of the Afa/Dr Adhesin DraE and Its Interaction with Chloramphenicol, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.279, issue.45, pp.46851-46857, 2004.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M409284200

M. K. Boehm, M. O. Mayans, J. D. Thornton, R. H. Begent, P. A. Keep et al., Extended Glycoprotein Structure of the Seven Domains in Human Carcinoembryonic Antigen by X-ray and Neutron Solution Scattering and an Automated Curve Fitting Procedure: Implications for Cellular Adhesion, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.259, issue.4, pp.718-736, 1996.
DOI : 10.1006/jmbi.1996.0353

M. P. Bos, D. Hogan, and R. J. Belland, Homologue Scanning Mutagenesis Reveals Cd66 Receptor Residues Required for Neisserial Opa Protein Binding, The Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol.155, issue.3, pp.331-340, 1999.
DOI : 10.1126/science.7544493

URL : http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2195581

I. Hunter, H. Sawa, M. Edlund, and B. Obrink, Evidence for regulated dimerization of cell-cell adhesion molecule (C-CAM) in epithelial cells, Biochemical Journal, vol.320, issue.3, pp.847-853, 1996.
DOI : 10.1042/bj3200847

A. Krop-watorek, S. Oikawa, Y. Oyama, and H. Nakazato, Oligomerization of N-Terminal Domain of Carcinoembryonic Antigen (CEA) Expressed inEscherichia coli, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.242, issue.1, pp.79-83, 1998.
DOI : 10.1006/bbrc.1997.7920

G. Markel, R. Gruda, H. Achdout, G. Katz, M. Nechama et al., The Critical Role of Residues 43R and 44Q of Carcinoembryonic Antigen Cell Adhesion Molecules-1 in the Protection from Killing by Human NK Cells, The Journal of Immunology, vol.173, issue.6, pp.3732-3739, 2004.
DOI : 10.4049/jimmunol.173.6.3732

I. Kansau, C. Berger, M. Hospital, R. Amsellem, V. Nicolas et al., Zipper-Like Internalization of Dr-Positive Escherichia coli by Epithelial Cells Is Preceded by an Adhesin-Induced Mobilization of Raft-Associated Molecules in the Initial Step of Adhesion, Infection and Immunity, vol.72, issue.7, pp.3733-3742, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.72.7.3733-3742.2004

M. Das, A. Hart-van-tassell, P. T. Urvil, S. Lea, D. Pettigrew et al., Hydrophilic Domain II of Escherichia coli Dr Fimbriae Facilitates Cell Invasion, Infection and Immunity, vol.73, issue.9, pp.6119-6126, 2005.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.73.9.6119-6126.2005

L. Plancon, L. Du-merle, L. Friec, S. Gounon, P. Jouve et al., Recognition of the cellular beta1-chain integrin by the bacterial AfaD invasin is implicated in the internalization of afa-expressing pathogenic Escherichia coli strains, Cellular Microbiology, vol.123, issue.10, pp.681-693, 2003.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1462-5822.2002.00192.x

R. Selvarangan, P. Goluszko, V. Popov, J. Singhal, T. Pham et al., Role of Decay-Accelerating Factor Domains and Anchorage in Internalization of Dr-Fimbriated Escherichia coli, Infection and Immunity, vol.68, issue.3, pp.1391-1399, 2000.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.68.3.1391-1399.2000

S. E. Mccaw, E. H. Liao, and S. D. Gray-owen, Engulfment of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: Revealing Distinct Processes of Bacterial Entry by Individual Carcinoembryonic Antigen-Related Cellular Adhesion Molecule Family Receptors, Infection and Immunity, vol.72, issue.5, pp.2742-2752, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/IAI.72.5.2742-2752.2004