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Role of receptor-mediated endocytosis, endosomal acidification and cathepsin D in cholera toxin cytotoxicity.

Abstract : Using the in situ liver model system, we have recently shown that, after cholera toxin binding to hepatic cells, cholera toxin accumulates in a low-density endosomal compartment, and then undergoes endosomal proteolysis by the aspartic acid protease cathepsin-D [Merlen C, Fayol-Messaoudi D, Fabrega S, El Hage T, Servin A, Authier F (2005) FEBS J272, 4385-4397]. Here, we have used a subcellular fractionation approach to address the in vivo compartmentalization and cytotoxic action of cholera toxin in rat liver parenchyma. Following administration of a saturating dose of cholera toxin to rats, rapid endocytosis of both cholera toxin subunits was observed, coincident with massive internalization of both the 45 kDa and 47 kDa Gsalpha proteins. These events coincided with the endosomal recruitment of ADP-ribosylation factor proteins, especially ADP-ribosylation factor-6, with a time course identical to that of toxin and the A subunit of the stimulatory G protein (Gsalpha) translocation. After an initial lag phase of 30 min, these constituents were linked to NAD-dependent ADP-ribosylation of endogenous Gsalpha, with maximum accumulation observed at 30-60 min postinjection. Assessment of the subsequent postendosomal fate of internalized Gsalpha revealed sustained endolysosomal transfer of the two Gsalpha isoforms. Concomitantly, cholera toxin increased in vivo endosome acidification rates driven by the ATP-dependent H(+)-ATPase pump and in vitro vacuolar acidification in hepatoma HepG2 cells. The vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin and the cathepsin D inhibitor pepstatin A partially inhibited, both in vivo and in vitro, the cAMP response to cholera toxin. This cathepsin D-dependent action of cholera toxin under the control of endosomal acidity was confirmed using cellular systems in which modification of the expression levels of cathepsin D, either by transfection of the cathepsin D gene or small interfering RNA, was followed by parallel changes in the cytotoxic response to cholera toxin. Thus, in hepatic cells, a unique endocytic pathway was revealed following cholera toxin administration, with regulation specificity most probably occurring at the locus of the endosome and implicating endosomal proteases, such as cathepsin D, as well as organelle acidification.
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Contributor : Patrice Codogno <>
Submitted on : Friday, September 28, 2007 - 12:21:23 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, September 16, 2020 - 4:56:01 PM
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Tatiana El Hage, Clémence Merlen, Sylvie Fabrega, François Authier. Role of receptor-mediated endocytosis, endosomal acidification and cathepsin D in cholera toxin cytotoxicity.. FEBS Journal, Wiley, 2007, 274 (10), pp.2614-29. ⟨10.1111/j.1742-4658.2007.05797.x⟩. ⟨inserm-00175472⟩

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