P. Zimmet, K. Alberti, and J. Shaw, Global and societal implications of the diabetes epidemic, Nature, vol.414, issue.6865, pp.782-787, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/414782a

H. Hauner, The new concept of adipose tissue function, Physiology & Behavior, vol.83, issue.4, pp.653-658, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.physbeh.2004.09.016

K. Wellen and G. Hotamisligil, Inflammation, stress, and diabetes, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.115, issue.5, pp.1111-1119, 2005.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI200525102DS1

A. Marette, Molecular mechanisms of inflammation in obesity-linked insulin resistance, International Journal of Obesity, vol.27, pp.46-48, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/sj.ijo.0802500

H. Xu, G. Barnes, Q. Yang, G. Tan, D. Yang et al., Chronic inflammation in fat plays a crucial role in the development of obesity-related insulin resistance, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.112, issue.12, pp.1821-1830, 2003.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI19451DS1

S. Weisberg, D. Mccann, M. Desai, M. Rosenbaum, R. Leibel et al., Obesity is associated with macrophage accumulation in adipose tissue, Journal of Clinical Investigation, vol.112, issue.12, pp.1796-1808, 2003.
DOI : 10.1172/JCI19246DS1

C. Taniguchi, B. Emanuelli, and C. Kahn, Critical nodes in signalling pathways: insights into insulin action, Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology, vol.283, issue.2, pp.85-96, 2006.
DOI : 10.1038/nrm1837

P. Gual, L. Marchand-brustel, Y. Tanti, and J. , Positive and negative regulation of insulin signaling through IRS-1 phosphorylation, Biochimie, vol.87, issue.1, pp.99-109, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.biochi.2004.10.019

Y. Zick, Insulin resistance: a phosphorylation-based uncoupling of insulin signaling, Trends in Cell Biology, vol.11, pp.437-441, 2001.
DOI : 10.1016/S0962-8924(01)81297-6

V. Aguirre, T. Uchida, L. Yenush, R. Davis, M. White et al., The c-Jun NH2-terminal Kinase Promotes Insulin Resistance during Association with Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 and Phosphorylation of Ser307 A phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt/mTOR pathway mediates and PTEN antagonizes tumor necrosis factor inhibition of insulin signaling through insulin receptor substrate-1, J Biol Chem Proc Natl Acad Sci, vol.275, issue.98, pp.9047-9054, 2000.

P. Gual, T. Gremeaux, T. Gonzalez, L. Marchand-brustel, Y. Tanti et al., MAP kinases and mTOR mediate insulin-induced phosphorylation of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 on serine residues 307, 612 and 632, Diabetologia, vol.46, issue.11, pp.612-6321532, 2003.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-003-1223-4

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00081037

K. Bouzakri, M. Roques, P. Gual, S. Espinosa, F. Guebre-egziabher et al., Reduced Activation of Phosphatidylinositol-3 Kinase and Increased Serine 636 Phosphorylation of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 in Primary Culture of Skeletal Muscle Cells From Patients With Type 2 Diabetes, Diabetes, vol.52, issue.6, pp.1319-1325, 2003.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.52.6.1319

J. Engelman, A. Berg, R. Lewis, M. Lisanti, and P. Scherer, Tumor necrosis factor alpha-mediated insulin resistance, but not dedifferentiation, is abrogated by MEK1/2 inhibitors in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Mol Endocrinol, vol.14, pp.1557-1569, 2000.

B. Emanuelli, P. Peraldi, C. Filloux, D. Sawka-verhelle, D. Hilton et al., SOCS-3 Is an Insulin-induced Negative Regulator of Insulin Signaling, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.275, issue.21, pp.15985-15991, 2000.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.275.21.15985

K. Ueki, T. Kondo, and C. Kahn, Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 (SOCS-1) and SOCS-3 Cause Insulin Resistance through Inhibition of Tyrosine Phosphorylation of Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins by Discrete Mechanisms, Molecular and Cellular Biology, vol.24, issue.12, pp.5434-5446, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/MCB.24.12.5434-5446.2004

L. Rui, M. Yuan, D. Frantz, S. Shoelson, and M. White, SOCS-1 and SOCS-3 Block Insulin Signaling by Ubiquitin-mediated Degradation of IRS1 and IRS2, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.277, issue.44, pp.42394-42398, 2002.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.C200444200

H. Shi, B. Cave, K. Inouye, C. Bjorbaek, and J. Flier, Overexpression of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 in Adipose Tissue Causes Local but Not Systemic Insulin Resistance, Diabetes, vol.55, issue.3, pp.699-707, 2006.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.55.03.06.db05-0841

V. Rotter, I. Nagaev, U. Smith, J. Bastard, M. Auclair et al., IL-6) induces insulin resistance in 3T3-L1 adipocytes and is, like IL-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, overexpressed in human fat cells from insulin-resistant subjectsIL-6) treatment increased IL-6 secretion and induced insulin resistance in adipocyte: prevention by rosiglitazone, J Biol Chem Chronic interleukin- Biochem Biophys Res Commun, vol.2786, issue.311, pp.45777-45784372, 2003.

J. Warne, Tumour necrosis factor alpha: a key regulator of adipose tissue mass, Journal of Endocrinology, vol.177, issue.3, pp.351-355, 2003.
DOI : 10.1677/joe.0.1770351

A. Thirone, C. Huang, and A. Klip, Tissue-specific roles of IRS proteins in insulin signaling and glucose transport, Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.17, issue.2, pp.72-78, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tem.2006.01.005

M. Martin and H. Wesche, Summary and comparison of the signaling mechanisms of the Toll/interleukin-1 receptor family, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta (BBA) - Molecular Cell Research, vol.1592, issue.3, pp.265-280, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0167-4889(02)00320-8

J. Spranger, A. Kroke, M. Mohlig, K. Hoffmann, M. Bergmann et al., Inflammatory Cytokines and the Risk to Develop Type 2 Diabetes: Results of the Prospective Population-Based European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)-Potsdam Study, Diabetes, vol.52, issue.3, pp.812-817, 2003.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.52.3.812

U. Salmenniemi, E. Ruotsalainen, J. Pihlajamaki, I. Vauhkonen, S. Kainulainen et al., Multiple Abnormalities in Glucose and Energy Metabolism and Coordinated Changes in Levels of Adiponectin, Cytokines, and Adhesion Molecules in Subjects With Metabolic Syndrome, Circulation, vol.110, issue.25, pp.3842-3848, 2004.
DOI : 10.1161/01.CIR.0000150391.38660.9B

C. Juge-aubry, E. Somm, R. Chicheportiche, D. Burger, A. Pernin et al., Regulatory Effects of Interleukin (IL)-1, Interferon-??, and IL-4 on the Production of IL-1 Receptor Antagonist by Human Adipose Tissue, The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism, vol.89, issue.6, pp.2652-2658, 2004.
DOI : 10.1210/jc.2003-031219

P. Gual, S. Shigematsu, M. Kanzali, T. Grémeaux, T. Gonzalez et al., A Crk-II/TC10 Signaling Pathway Is Required For Osmotic Shock-stimulated Glucose Transport, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.277, issue.46, pp.43980-43986, 2002.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M203042200

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00081041

M. Mari, P. Monzo, V. Kaddai, F. Keslair, T. Gonzalez et al., The Rab4 effector Rabip4 plays a role in the endocytotic trafficking of Glut 4 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes Stimulation of interleukin-6 release by interleukin-1beta from isolated human adipocytes, J Cell Sci Cytokine Cell Metab, vol.119, issue.2, pp.1297-130632, 2003.

H. Sano, S. Kane, E. Sano, C. Miinea, J. Asara et al., Insulin-stimulated Phosphorylation of a Rab GTPase-activating Protein Regulates GLUT4 Translocation, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.278, issue.17, pp.14599-14602, 2003.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.C300063200

J. He, I. Usui, K. Ishizuka, Y. Kanatani, K. Hiratani et al., Interleukin-1?? Inhibits Insulin Signaling with Phosphorylating Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 on Serine Residues in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes, Molecular Endocrinology, vol.20, issue.1, pp.114-124, 2006.
DOI : 10.1210/me.2005-0107

B. Emanuelli, M. Glondu, C. Filloux, P. Peraldi, and V. Obberghen, The Potential Role of SOCS-3 in the Interleukin-1??-Induced Desensitization of Insulin Signaling in Pancreatic Beta-Cells, Diabetes, vol.53, issue.Supplement 3, pp.97-103, 2004.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.53.suppl_3.S97

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00322797

G. Hotamisligil, P. Peraldi, A. Budavari, R. Ellis, M. White et al., IRS-1-Mediated Inhibition of Insulin Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Activity in TNF-alpha- and Obesity-Induced Insulin Resistance, Science, vol.271, issue.5249, pp.665-668, 1996.
DOI : 10.1126/science.271.5249.665

C. Lagathu, L. Yvan-charvet, J. Bastard, M. Maachi, A. Quignard-boulange et al., Long-term treatment with interleukin-1?? induces insulin resistance in murine and human adipocytes, Diabetologia, vol.50, issue.Suppl 3, pp.2162-2173, 2006.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-006-0335-z

J. Ohsumi, S. Sakakibara, J. Yamaguchi, K. Miyadai, S. Yoshioka et al., Troglitazone prevents the inhibitory effects of inflammatory cytokines on insulin-induced adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, Endocrinology, vol.135, pp.2279-2282, 1994.

S. Previs, D. Withers, J. Ren, M. White, and G. Shulman, Contrasting Effects of IRS-1 Versus IRS-2 Gene Disruption on Carbohydrate and Lipid Metabolism in Vivo, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.275, issue.50, pp.38990-38994, 2000.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M006490200

C. Huang, A. Thirone, X. Huang, and A. Klip, Differential Contribution of Insulin Receptor Substrates 1 Versus 2 to Insulin Signaling and Glucose Uptake in L6 Myotubes, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.280, issue.19, pp.19426-19435, 2005.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M412317200

C. Carlson, S. Koterski, R. Sciotti, and G. Poccard, Enhanced Basal Activation of Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Adipocytes From Type 2 Diabetes: Potential Role of p38 in the Downregulation of GLUT4 Expression, Diabetes, vol.52, issue.3, pp.634-641
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.52.3.634

M. Fujishiro, Y. Gotoh, H. Katagiri, H. Sakoda, T. Ogihara et al., Three Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases Inhibit Insulin Signaling by Different Mechanisms in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes, Molecular Endocrinology, vol.17, issue.3, pp.487-497, 2003.
DOI : 10.1210/me.2002-0131

K. Bouzakri, H. Karlsson, H. Vestergaard, S. Madsbad, E. Christiansen et al., IRS-1 Serine Phosphorylation and Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle From Pancreas Transplant Recipients, Diabetes, vol.55, issue.3, pp.785-791, 2006.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.55.03.06.db05-0796

R. Hernandez, T. Teruel, C. De-alvaro, and M. Lorenzo, Rosiglitazone ameliorates insulin resistance in brown adipocytes of Wistar rats by impairing TNF-?? induction of p38 and p42/p44 mitogen-activated protein kinases, Diabetologia, vol.377, issue.9, pp.1615-1624, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/s00125-004-1503-7

P. Plomgaard, K. Bouzakri, R. Krogh-madsen, B. Mittendorfer, J. Zierath et al., Tumor Necrosis Factor-?? Induces Skeletal Muscle Insulin Resistance in Healthy Human Subjects via Inhibition of Akt Substrate 160 Phosphorylation, Diabetes, vol.54, issue.10, pp.2939-2945, 2005.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.54.10.2939

F. Bost, M. Aouadi, L. Caron, P. Even, N. Belmonte et al., The Extracellular Signal-Regulated Kinase Isoform ERK1 Is Specifically Required for In Vitro and In Vivo Adipogenesis, Diabetes, vol.54, issue.2, pp.402-411, 2005.
DOI : 10.2337/diabetes.54.2.402

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-00321945

T. Haruta, T. Uno, J. Kawahara, A. Takano, K. Egawa et al., A Rapamycin-Sensitive Pathway Down-Regulates Insulin Signaling via Phosphorylation and Proteasomal Degradation of Insulin Receptor Substrate-1, Process Citation], pp.783-794, 2000.
DOI : 10.1210/mend.14.6.0446

P. Gual, T. Gonzalez, T. Gremeaux, R. Barres, L. Marchand-brustel et al., Hyperosmotic Stress Inhibits Insulin Receptor Substrate-1 Function by Distinct Mechanisms in 3T3-L1 Adipocytes, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.278, issue.29, pp.26550-26557, 2003.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.M212273200

URL : https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/inserm-00081038

R. Potashnik, A. Bloch-damti, and N. Bashan, IRS1 degradation and increased serine phosphorylation cannot predict the degree of metabolic insulin resistance induced by oxidative stress, Diabetologia, vol.104, issue.5, pp.639-648
DOI : 10.1007/s001250051253

F. He and J. Stephens, Induction of SOCS-3 is insufficient to confer IRS-1 protein degradation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol.344, issue.1, pp.95-98, 2006.
DOI : 10.1016/j.bbrc.2006.03.142

Y. Boisclair, J. Wang, J. Shi, K. Hurst, and G. Ooi, Role of the Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling-3 in Mediating the Inhibitory Effects of Interleukin-1?? on the Growth Hormone-dependent Transcription of the Acid-labile Subunit Gene in Liver Cells, Journal of Biological Chemistry, vol.275, issue.6, pp.3841-3847, 2000.
DOI : 10.1074/jbc.275.6.3841