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L'apéline, un inhibiteur naturel de l'effet antidiurétique de la vasopressine

Catherine Llorens-Cortès 1 Alain Beaudet 2
1 Neuropeptides centraux et régulations hydrique et cardiovasculaire
UPMC - Université Pierre et Marie Curie - Paris 6, CIRB - Centre interdisciplinaire de recherche en biologie, INSERM - Institut National de la Santé et de la Recherche Médicale : U691
Abstract : Apelin is a peptide that was recently isolated as the endogenous ligand for the human orphan APJ receptor, a G protein-coupled receptor which shares 31 % amino-acid sequence identity with the angiotensin type 1 receptor. Apelin naturally occurs in the brain and plasma as 13 (pE13F) and 17 amino-acid (K17F) fragments of a single pro-peptide precursor. In transfected CHO cells, K17F and pE13F bind with high affinity to the rat APJ receptor, promote receptor internalization, and inhibit forskolin-induced cAMP formation. In the same cells, pE13F activates MAP kinase and PI3 kinase pathways. Apelin and APJ receptors are both widely distributed in the brain but are particularly highly expressed in the supraoptic (SON) and paraventricular (PVN) hypothalamic nuclei. Dual labeling studies demonstrate that within these two nuclei, apelin and its receptor are colocalized with vasopressin (AVP) in a subset of magnocellular neurons. In lactating rats, characterized by increases in both synthesis and release of AVP, central injection of apelin inhibits the phasic electrical activity of AVP neurons, reduces plasma AVP levels, and increases aqueous diuresis. Moreover, water deprivation, while increasing the activity of AVP neurons, reduces plasma apelin concentrations and induces an intra-neuronal pile up of the peptide, thereby decreasing the inhibitory effect of apelin on AVP release and preventing additional water loss at the kidney level. Taken together, these data demonstrate that apelin counteracts the effects of AVP in the maintenance of body fluid homeostasis. In addition, apelin and its receptor are present in the cardiovascular system, i.e. heart, kidney and vessels. Systemically administered apelin reduces arterial blood pressure, increases cardiac contractility and reduces cardiac loading. The development of non peptidic analogs of apelin may therefore offer new therapeutic avenues for the treatment of cardiovascular disorders.
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  • PUBMED : 16115460

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Catherine Llorens-Cortès, Alain Beaudet. L'apéline, un inhibiteur naturel de l'effet antidiurétique de la vasopressine. médecine/sciences, EDP Sciences, 2005, 21 (8-9), pp.741-6. ⟨inserm-00104683⟩

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