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Réparation et régénération de l'épithélium respiratoire

Abstract : Despite an efficient defence system, the airway surface epithelium, in permanent contact with the external milieu, is frequently injured by inhaled pollutants, microorganisms and viruses. The response of the airway surface epithelium to an acute injury includes a succession of cellular events varying from the loss of the surface epithelium integrity to partial shedding of the epithelium or even to complete denudation of the basement membrane. The epithelium has then to repair and regenerate to restore its functions, through several mechanisms including basal cell spreading and migration, followed by proliferation and differentiation of epithelial cells. The cellular and molecular factors involved in wound repair and epithelial regeneration are closely interacting and imply extracellular matrix proteins, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their inhibitors as well as cytokines and growth factors secreted by airway epithelial and mesenchymal cells. The development of in vitro and in vivo models of airway epithelium wound repair allowed the study of the spatio-temporal modulation of these factors during the different steps of epithelial repair and regeneration. In this context, several studies have demonstrated that the matrix and secretory environment are markedly involved in these mechanisms and that their dysregulation may induce remodelling of the airway mucosa. A better knowledge of the mechanisms involved in airway epithelium regeneration may pave the way to regenerative therapeutics allowing the reconstitution of a functional airway epithelium in numerous respiratory diseases such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases, cystic fibrosis and bronchiolitis.
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Submitted on : Thursday, October 5, 2006 - 11:27:47 AM
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  • HAL Id : inserm-00103717, version 1
  • PUBMED : 16324647



Christelle Coraux, Rodolphe Hajj, Pierre Lesimple, Edith Puchelle. Réparation et régénération de l'épithélium respiratoire. médecine/sciences, EDP Sciences, 2005, 21 (12), pp.1063-9. ⟨inserm-00103717⟩