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Effect of propofol and etomidate on normoxic and chronically hypoxic pulmonary artery.

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Chronic alveolar hypoxia results in sustained arterial constriction, and increase in pulmonary vascular resistance leading to pulmonary artery hypertension (PAHT). The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of propofol and etomidate on pulmonary artery (PA) reactivity in chronically hypoxic (CH) rats, a model of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAHT), in normoxic animals, and human PA. METHODS: CH rats were maintained 14 days at 380 mmHg pressure in a hypobaric chamber. Human tissue was retrieved from histological lung pieces from patients undergoing resection for carcinoma. Cumulative concentrations of anaesthetics were tested on isolated vascular rings precontracted with phenylephrine (PHE) or 100 mM KCl. Statistical comparisons were done by ANOVA, followed, when needed, by Student t tests with Bonferroni correction as post-hoc tests. RESULTS: In normoxic rat PA, maximal relaxation (Rmax) induced by etomidate and propofol was 101.3 +/- 0.8% and 94.0 +/- 2.3%, respectively, in KCl-precontracted rings, and 63.3 +/- 9.7% and 46.1 +/- 9.1%, respectively, in PHE-precontracted rings (n = 7). In KCl-precontracted human PA, Rmax was 84.7 +/- 8.6 % and 66.5 +/- 11.8%, for etomidate and propofol, respectively, and 154.2 +/- 22.4 % and 51.6 +/- 15.1 %, respectively, in PHE-precontracted human PA (n = 7). In CH rat PA, the relaxant effect of both anaesthetics was increased in PHE-precontracted and, for etomidate only, in KCl-precontracted PA. In aorta, CH induced no change in the relaxant effect of anaesthetics. CONCLUSION: Propofol and etomidate have relaxant properties in PA from human and normoxic rat. The relaxant effect is specifically accentuated in PA from CH rat, mainly via an effect on the pharmacomechanical coupling. Etomidate appears to be more efficient than propofol at identical concentration, but, taking into account clinical concentrations, etomidate is less potent than propofol, which effect was in the range of clinical doses. Although these findings provide experimental support for the preferential use of etomidate for haemodynamic stability in patients suffering from PAHT, the clinical relevance of the observations requires further investigation.
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Submitted on : Thursday, June 22, 2006 - 4:20:09 PM
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Nazinigouba Ouédraogo, Boutchi Mounkaïla, Huguette Crevel, Roger Marthan, Etienne Roux. Effect of propofol and etomidate on normoxic and chronically hypoxic pulmonary artery.. BMC Anesthesiology, BioMed Central, 2006, 6, pp.2. ⟨10.1186/1471-2253-6-2⟩. ⟨inserm-00081265⟩

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