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Mathematical modeling of endovenous laser treatment (ELT).

Abstract : BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Endovenous laser treatment (ELT) has been recently proposed as an alternative in the treatment of reflux of the Great Saphenous Vein (GSV) and Small Saphenous Vein (SSV). Successful ELT depends on the selection of optimal parameters required to achieve an optimal vein damage while avoiding side effects. Mathematical modeling of ELT could provide a better understanding of the ELT process and could determine the optimal dosage as a function of vein diameter. STUDY DESIGN/MATERIALS AND METHODS: The model is based on calculations describing the light distribution using the diffusion approximation of the transport theory, the temperature rise using the bioheat equation and the laser-induced injury using the Arrhenius damage model. The geometry to simulate ELT was based on a 2D model consisting of a cylindrically symmetric blood vessel including a vessel wall and surrounded by an infinite homogenous tissue. The mathematical model was implemented using the Macsyma-Pdease2D software (Macsyma Inc., Arlington, MA, USA). Damage to the vein wall for CW and single shot energy was calculated for 3 and 5 mm vein diameters. In pulsed mode, the pullback distance (3, 5 and 7 mm) was considered. For CW mode simulation, the pullback speed (1, 2, 3 mm/s) was the variable. The total dose was expressed as joules per centimeter in order to perform comparison to results already reported in clinical studies. RESULTS: In pulsed mode, for a 3 mm vein diameter, irrespective of the pullback distance (2, 5 or 7 mm), a minimum fluence of 15 J/cm is required to obtain a permanent damage of the intima. For a 5 mm vein diameter, 50 J/cm (15W-2s) is required. In continuous mode, for a 3 mm and 5 mm vein diameter, respectively 65 J/cm and 100 J/cm are required to obtain a permanent damage of the vessel wall. Finally, the use of different wavelengths (810 nm or 980 nm) played only a minor influence on these results. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: The parameters determined by mathematical modeling are in agreement with those used in clinical practice. They confirm that thermal damage of the inner vein wall (tunica intima) is required to achieve the tissue alterations necessary in order to lead the vein to permanent occlusion. However, in order to obtain a high rate of success without adverse events, the knowledge of the vein diameter after tumescent anesthesia is recommended in order to use the optimal energy. As clearly demonstrated by our calculations, both pulsed and continuous mode operations of the laser can be efficient. An interesting observation in our model is that less amount of energy is required in pulsed mode than in continuous mode. Damaging the vein sequentially along its entire length may lead to permanent occlusion. However, the pulsed mode requires a very precise positioning of the fiber after each pullback and the duration of the treatment is much longer. For these reasons, continuous irradiation seems to be preferred by most clinicians. This model should serve as a useful tool to simulate and better understand the mechanism of action of the ELT.
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https://www.hal.inserm.fr/inserm-00080413
Contributor : Serge Mordon <>
Submitted on : Friday, June 16, 2006 - 2:31:00 PM
Last modification on : Wednesday, June 10, 2020 - 6:16:08 PM
Long-term archiving on: : Tuesday, September 18, 2012 - 2:46:03 PM

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Serge Mordon, Benjamin Wassmer, Jaouad Zemmouri. Mathematical modeling of endovenous laser treatment (ELT).. BioMedical Engineering OnLine, BioMed Central, 2006, 5, pp.26. ⟨10.1186/1475-925X-5-26⟩. ⟨inserm-00080413⟩

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