P. Taylor, Optimal life histories with age dependent tradeoff curves, Journal of Theoretical Biology, vol.148, issue.1, pp.33-48, 1991.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-5193(05)80464-3

R. Holliday, Understanding ageing. Cambridge, 1995.

T. Kirkwood and R. Holliday, The Evolution of Ageing and Longevity, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.205, issue.1161, pp.531-546, 1979.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1979.0083

T. Kirkwood, Understanding the Odd Science of Aging, Cell, vol.120, issue.4, pp.437-447, 2005.
DOI : 10.1016/j.cell.2005.01.027

S. Frank, Models of Parasite Virulence, The Quarterly Review of Biology, vol.71, issue.1, pp.37-78, 1996.
DOI : 10.1086/419267

S. Bonhoeffer, R. Lenski, and D. Ebert, The Curse of the Pharaoh: The Evolution of Virulence in Pathogens with Long Living Propagules, Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, vol.263, issue.1371, pp.715-721, 1996.
DOI : 10.1098/rspb.1996.0107

S. Skraber, B. Gassilloud, and C. Gantzer, Comparison of Coliforms and Coliphages as Tools for Assessment of Viral Contamination in River Water, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.70, issue.6, pp.3644-3649, 2004.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.70.6.3644-3649.2004

R. Araujo, A. Puig, J. Lasobras, F. Lucena, and J. Jofre, Phages of enteric bacteria in fresh water with different levels of faecal pollution, Journal of Applied Microbiology, vol.82, issue.3, pp.281-286, 1997.
DOI : 10.1046/j.1365-2672.1997.00354.x

J. Kindt, S. Tzlil, A. Ben-shaul, and W. Gelbart, DNA packaging and ejection forces in bacteriophage, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.413, issue.6857, pp.13671-13674, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/35099581

D. Smith, S. Tans, S. Smith, S. Grimes, and D. Anderson, The bacteriophage straight phi29 portal motor can package DNA against a large internal force, Nature, vol.413, issue.6857, pp.748-752, 2001.
DOI : 10.1038/35099581

D. Ritchie and F. Malcolm, Heat-stable and Density Mutants of Phages T1, T3 and T7, Journal of General Virology, vol.9, issue.1, pp.35-43, 1970.
DOI : 10.1099/0022-1317-9-1-35

J. Parkinson and R. Huskey, Deletion mutants of bacteriophage lambda, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.56, issue.2, pp.369-384, 1971.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2836(71)90471-2

H. Yamagishi, G. Eguchi, H. Matsuo, and H. Ozeki, Visualization of thermal inactivation in phages lambda and ??80, Virology, vol.53, issue.1, pp.277-282, 1973.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6822(73)90486-8

I. Rubenstein, Heat-stable mutants of T5 phage, Virology, vol.36, issue.3, pp.356-376, 1968.
DOI : 10.1016/0042-6822(68)90161-X

P. Russell and U. Muller, Construction of bacteriophage luminal diameterX174 mutants with maximum genome sizes, J Virol, vol.52, pp.822-827, 1984.

M. Schaper, A. Duran, and J. Jofre, Comparative Resistance of Phage Isolates of Four Genotypes of F-Specific RNA Bacteriophages to Various Inactivation Processes, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.68, issue.8, pp.3702-3707, 2002.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.68.8.3702-3707.2002

H. Ackermann, Bacteriophage observations and evolution, Research in Microbiology, vol.154, issue.4, pp.245-251, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0923-2508(03)00067-6

J. Droesbeke, B. Fichet, and P. Tassi, Analyse statistique des durées de vie: Modé lisation des donné es censuré es, Economica, vol.282, 1989.

P. Purohit, M. Inamdar, P. Grayson, T. Squires, and J. Kondev, Forces during Bacteriophage DNA Packaging and Ejection, Biophysical Journal, vol.88, issue.2, pp.851-866, 2005.
DOI : 10.1529/biophysj.104.047134

W. Chiu, R. Burnett, and R. Garcia, Structural biology of viruses, 1997.

P. Purohit, J. Kondev, and R. Phillips, Mechanics of DNA packaging in viruses, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.256, issue.5520, pp.3173-3178, 2003.
DOI : 10.1038/256705a0

T. Loeb and N. Zinder, A BACTERIOPHAGE CONTAINING RNA, Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, vol.47, issue.3, pp.282-289, 1961.
DOI : 10.1073/pnas.47.3.282

D. Bamford, L. Rouhiainen, K. Takkinen, and H. Soderlund, Comparison of the Lipid-containing Bacteriophages PRD1, PR3, PR4, PR5 and L17, Journal of General Virology, vol.57, issue.2, pp.365-373, 1981.
DOI : 10.1099/0022-1317-57-2-365

L. Moce-llivina, M. Muniesa, H. Pimenta-vale, F. Lucena, and J. Jofre, Survival of Bacterial Indicator Species and Bacteriophages after Thermal Treatment of Sludge and Sewage, Applied and Environmental Microbiology, vol.69, issue.3, pp.1452-1456, 2003.
DOI : 10.1128/AEM.69.3.1452-1456.2003

G. Brion, O. Banion, N. Marchin, and G. , Comparison of bacteriophages for use in iodine inactivation: batch and continuous flow studies, J Water Health, vol.2, pp.261-266, 2004.

L. Sinton, R. Finlay, and P. Lynch, Sunlight inactivation of fecal bacteriophages and bacteria in sewage-polluted seawater, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.65, pp.3605-3613, 1999.

D. Ebert and J. Bull, Challenging the trade-off model for the evolution of virulence: is virulence management feasible?, Trends in Microbiology, vol.11, issue.1, pp.15-20, 2003.
DOI : 10.1016/S0966-842X(02)00003-3

M. Woody and D. Cliver, Effects of temperature and host cell growth phase on replication of F-specific RNA coliphage Q beta, Appl Environ Microbiol, vol.61, pp.1520-1526, 1995.

A. Havelaar, W. Pot-hogeboom, K. Furuse, R. Pot, and M. Hormann, F-specific RNA bacteriophages and sensitive host strains in faeces and wastewater of human and animal origin, Journal of Applied Bacteriology, vol.46, issue.1, pp.30-37, 1990.
DOI : 10.1111/j.1365-2672.1990.tb02908.x

J. Bull, D. Pfennig, and I. Wang, Genetic details, optimization and phage life histories, Trends in Ecology & Evolution, vol.19, issue.2, pp.76-82, 2004.
DOI : 10.1016/j.tree.2003.10.008

J. Bull, M. Badgett, R. Springman, and I. Molineux, GENOME PROPERTIES AND THE LIMITS OF ADAPTATION IN BACTERIOPHAGES, Evolution, vol.61, issue.4, pp.692-701, 2004.
DOI : 10.1007/BF01237884

A. Campbell, Escherichia coli and salmonella: Cellular and molecular biology, pp.2325-2338, 1996.

C. Georgopolos, K. Tilly, and S. Casjens, Lambdoid phage head assembly, Lambda II. Cold Spring Harbor, pp.279-304, 1983.

L. Makowski, R. M. Chiu, W. Burnett, R. Garcea, and R. , Structure and assembly of filamentous bacteriophages, Structural biology of viruses, pp.352-380, 1997.

H. Boedtker and R. Gesteland, Physical properties of RNA bacteriophages, RNA phages. Cold Spring Harbor, pp.1-28, 1975.

J. Van-duin, Single-Stranded RNA Bacteriophages, pp.117-167, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4684-5424-6_4

R. Harshey, Phage Mu, pp.193-234, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4684-5424-6_6

M. Giphart-gassler, C. Wijffelman, and J. Reeve, Structural polypeptides and products of late genes of bacteriophage Mu: Characterization and functional aspects, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.145, issue.1, pp.139-163, 1981.
DOI : 10.1016/0022-2836(81)90338-7

M. Yarmolinsky and N. Sternberg, Bacteriophage P1, pp.291-438, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4684-5424-6_9

T. Dokland, B. Lindqvist, and S. Fuller, Image reconstruction from cryo-electron micrographs reveals the morphopoietic mechanism in the P2-P4 bacteriophage system, EMBO J, vol.11, pp.839-846, 1992.

L. Bertani and E. Six, The P2-like Phages and Their Parasite, P4, pp.77-143, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4684-5490-1_2

R. Mckenna, D. Xia, P. Willingmann, L. Ilag, and S. Krishnaswamy, Atomic structure of single-stranded DNA bacteriophage ??X174 and its functional implications, Nature, vol.355, issue.6356, pp.137-143, 1992.
DOI : 10.1038/355137a0

T. Dokland, R. Bernal, A. Burch, S. Pletnev, and B. Fane, The role of scaffolding proteins in the assembly of the small, single-stranded DNA virus ??X174, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.288, issue.4, pp.595-608, 1999.
DOI : 10.1006/jmbi.1999.2699

L. Mindich and D. Bamford, Lipid-Containing Bacteriophages, pp.475-520, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4684-5490-1_8

L. Black, M. Showe, and A. Steven, Morphogenesis of the T4 head Molecular biology of bacteriophage T4, pp.218-258, 1994.

M. Pajunen, M. Elizondo, M. Skurnik, J. Kieleczawa, and I. Molineux, Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Likely Recombinatorial Origin of Bacteriophage T3, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.319, issue.5, pp.1115-1132, 2002.
DOI : 10.1016/S0022-2836(02)00384-4

M. Cerritelli, N. Cheng, A. Rosenberg, C. Mcpherson, and F. Booy, Encapsidated Conformation of Bacteriophage T7 DNA, Cell, vol.91, issue.2, pp.271-280, 1997.
DOI : 10.1016/S0092-8674(00)80409-2

D. Mccorquodale and H. Warner, Bacteriophage T5 and Related Phages, The bacteriophages, pp.439-475, 1988.
DOI : 10.1007/978-1-4684-5424-6_10

M. Cerritelli and F. Studier, Assembly of T7 Capsids from Independently Expressed and Purified Head Protein and Scaffolding Protein, Journal of Molecular Biology, vol.258, issue.2, pp.286-298, 1996.
DOI : 10.1006/jmbi.1996.0250

Z. Ndeditor, RNA phages. Cold Spring Harbor, 1975.