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Assessment of Inflammation and Calcification in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Arteries and Skin with 18F-FluroDeoxyGlucose and 18F-Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging: The GOCAPXE Trial

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Pseudoxanthoma elasticum (PXE) is an inherited metabolic disease characterized by elastic fiber fragmentation and ectopic calcification. There is growing evidence that vascular calcification is associated with inflammatory status and is enhanced by inflammatory cytokines. Since PXE has never been considered as an inflammatory condition, no incidence of chronic inflammation leading to calcification in PXE has been reported and should be investigated. In atherosclerosis and aortic stenosis, positron emission tomography combined with computed tomographic (PET-CT) imaging has demonstrated a correlation between inflammation and calcification. The purpose of this study was to assess skin/artery inflammation and calcification in PXE patients. Methods: 18F-FluroDeoxyGlucose (18F-FDG) and 18F-Sodium Fluoride (18F-NaF) PET-CT, CT-imaging and Pulse wave velocity (PWV) were used to determine skin/vascular inflammation, tissue calcification, arterial calcium score (CS) and stiffness, respectively. In addition, inorganic pyrophosphate, high-sensitive C-reactive protein and cytokines plasma levels were monitored. RESULTS: In 23 PXE patients, assessment of inflammation revealed significant 18F-FDG uptake in diseased skin areas contrary to normal regions, and exclusively in the proximal aorta contrary to the popliteal arteries. There was no correlation between 18F-FDG uptake and PWV in the aortic wall. Assessment of calcification demonstrated significant 18F-NaF uptake in diseased skin regions and in the proximal aorta and femoral arteries. 18F-NaF wall uptake correlated with CS in the femoral arteries, and aortic wall PWV. Multivariate analysis indicated that aortic wall 18F-NaF uptake is associated with diastolic blood pressure. There was no significant correlation between 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF uptake in any of the artery walls. CONCLUSION: In the present cross-sectional study, inflammation and calcification were not correlated. PXE would appear to more closely resemble a chronic disease model of ectopic calcification than an inflammatory condition. To assess early ectopic calcification in PXE patients, 18F-NaF-PET-CT may be more relevant than CT imaging. It potentially constitutes a biomarker for disease-modifying anti-calcifying drug assessment in PXE.
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Submitted on : Wednesday, May 12, 2021 - 9:56:35 AM
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Loukman Omarjee, P.-J. Mention, Anne Janin, Gilles Kauffenstein, Estelle Le Pabic, et al.. Assessment of Inflammation and Calcification in Pseudoxanthoma Elasticum Arteries and Skin with 18F-FluroDeoxyGlucose and 18F-Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Imaging: The GOCAPXE Trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine, MDPI, 2020, 9 (11), pp.3448. ⟨10.3390/jcm9113448⟩. ⟨hal-03000935⟩

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