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Caractérisation du rôle de l'Antigène 43 dans le processus de colonisation d'Escherichia coli O157∶H7

Abstract : Enterohaemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) O157:H7 are anthropozoonotic agents leading to haemorrhagic colitis and haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS). From the ruminants, their natural reservoir, EHEC can contaminate some foodstuffs and consequently infect humans. The presence of extracellular matrix (ECM) components along the food chain could contribute to the colonisation process. Numerous proteins can be present at the bacterial cell surface in EHEC, among them, antigen 43 (Ag43) is secreted by the Type V, subtype a, secretion system (T5aSS) and belongs to the family of self-associating autotransporters (SAATs). These modular proteins, comprising a cleavable N-terminal signal peptide, a surface-exposed central passenger and an outer membrane C-terminal translocator, self-recognise in a Velcro-like handshake mechanism. Ag43 was originally considered as distributed into two subfamilies, namely SF-I and SF-II but phylogenetic network analyses revealed for the first time that it actually distribute into six distinct classes, namely C1 to C6 based on the shuffling of different subdomains within the Ag43 passengers. Regarding prevalence and distribution in Bacteria, agn43 appeared to be essentially present in E. coli with up to 5 copies of the gene present in a single genome and in different combinations of Ag43 classes. Functional analyses of Ag43 C1 to Ag43 C4 revealed that homotypic interactions occurred for all Ag43 classes but Ag43 C3 induced significant differences in the sedimentation kinetics and autoaggregation state. In contrast, heterotypic interactions occurred in a very limited number of cases. In E. coli O157:H7, Ag43 C2 was shown to contribute to bacterial adhesion to collagens I and III and to the autoaggregation. Furthermore in this strain, the latter phenotype appeared to be regulated by the Dam methylase and the OxyR transcriptional regulator. Taken together, these results provide new insights of the diversity of Ag43 as well as its role and regulation in E. coli O157:H7. Thus, Ag43 may represent an important colonisation factor of the food chain by EHEC and other diarrheagenic E. coli.
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Valentin Ageorges. Caractérisation du rôle de l'Antigène 43 dans le processus de colonisation d'Escherichia coli O157∶H7. Microbiologie et Parasitologie. Université Clermont Auvergne, 2019. Français. ⟨NNT : 2019CLFAC019⟩. ⟨tel-02910354⟩

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