Impact of cystinosin glycosylation on protein stability by differential dynamic SILAC

Abstract : Cystinosis is a rare autosomal recessive lysosomal storage disorder characterized by intralysosomal accumulation of cystine. The causative gene for cystinosis is CTNS, which encodes the protein cystinosin, a lysosomal proton-driven cystine transporter. Over 100 mutations have been reported, leading to varying disease severity, often in correlation with residual cystinosin activity as a transporter and with maintenance of its protein-protein interactions. In this study, we focus on the ΔITILELP mutation, the only mutation reported that sometimes leads to severe forms, inconsistent with its residual transported activity. ΔITILELP is a deletion that eliminates a consensus site on N66, one of the protein seven glycosylation sites. Our hypothesis was that the ΔITILELP mutant is less stable and undergoes faster degradation. Our dynamic SILAC study clearly showed that wild-type cystinosin is very stable, while ΔITILELP is degraded three times more rapidly. Additional lysosome inhibition experiments confirmed ΔITILELP instability and showed that the degradation was mainly lysosomal. We observed that in the lysosome, ΔITILELP is still capable of interacting with the V-ATPase complex and some members of the mTOR pathway, similar to the wild-type protein. Intriguingly, our interactomic and immunofluorescence studies showed that ΔITILELP is partially retained at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We proposed that the ΔITILELP mutation causes protein misfolding, ER retention and inability to be processed in the Golgi apparatus, and we demonstrated that ΔITILELP carries high-mannose glycans on all six of its remaining glycosylation sites. We found that the high turnover of ΔITILELP, due to its immature glycosylation state in combination with low transport activity, might be responsible for the phenotype observed in some patients. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD004948, PXD005357 and on Panorama Public at https://panoramaweb.org/labkey/Guerrera.url.
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Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017, [Epub ahead of print]. 〈10.1074/mcp.M116.063867〉
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Nathalie Nevo, Lucie Thomas, Cerina Chhuon, Zuzanna Andrzejewska, Joanna Lipecka, et al.. Impact of cystinosin glycosylation on protein stability by differential dynamic SILAC. Molecular and Cellular Proteomics, American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2017, [Epub ahead of print]. 〈10.1074/mcp.M116.063867〉. 〈inserm-01438319〉

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