Plant Transgenerational Epigenetics

Abstract : Transgenerational epigenetics is defined in opposition to developmental epi-genetics and implies an absence of resetting of epigenetic states between generations. Unlike mammals, plants appear to be particularly prone to this type of inheritance. In this review, we summarize our knowledge about trans-generational epigenetics in plants, which entails heritable changes in DNA methylation. We emphasize the role of transposable elements and other repeat sequences in the creation of epimutable alleles. We also argue that because reprogramming of DNA methylation across generations seems limited in plants, the inheritance of DNA methylation defects results from the failure to reinforce rather than reset this modification during sexual reproduction. We compare genome-wide assessments of heritable DNA methylation variation and its phenotypic impact in natural populations to those made using near-isogenic populations derived from crosses between parents with experimentally induced DNA methylation differences. Finally, we question the role of the environment in inducing transgenerational epigenetic variation and briefly present theoretical models under which epimutability is expected to be selected for.
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Annual Review of Genetics, Annual Reviews, 2016, 50, pp.467 - 491. 〈10.1146/annurev-genet-120215-035254〉
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Leandro Quadrana, Vincent Colot. Plant Transgenerational Epigenetics. Annual Review of Genetics, Annual Reviews, 2016, 50, pp.467 - 491. 〈10.1146/annurev-genet-120215-035254〉. 〈inserm-01411754〉

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