Endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction in neurological disease

Abstract : Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) dysfunction is important in the pathogenesis of many neurological diseases. In this review, we examine the evidence for ER dysfunction in a range of neurological conditions including cerebral ischaemia, sleep apnoea, Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, the prion diseases and Familial Encephalopathy with Neuroserpin Inclusion Bodies (FENIB). Protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum initiates a well-studied 'Unfolded Protein Response' in energy-starved neurones during stroke that is relevant to the toxicity of reperfusion. The toxic peptide Aβ induces 'ER stress' in Alzheimer's disease leading to activation of similar pathways, while the accumulation of polymeric neuroserpin in the neuronal ER triggers a poorly understood 'ER overload response'. In other neurological disorders such as Parkinson's and Huntington's diseases ER dysfunction is well recognised but the mechanisms for this are less clear. By targeting components of these signalling responses, it may prove possible to ameliorate their toxic effects and treat a range of neurodegenerative conditions.
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Lancet Neurology, Elsevier, 2013, 12 (1), pp.105 - 118. 〈10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70238-7〉
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Benoit D. Roussel, Antonina Kruppa, Elena Miranda, Damian Crowther, David Lomas, et al.. Endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction in neurological disease. Lancet Neurology, Elsevier, 2013, 12 (1), pp.105 - 118. 〈10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70238-7〉. 〈inserm-01296824〉

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