Job strain and tobacco smoking: an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166,130 adults in 15 European studies.

Katriina Heikkilä 1, * Solja Nyberg 1 Eleonor Fransson 2, 3, 4 Lars Alfredsson 5, 4 Dirk De Bacquer 6 Jakob Bjorner 7 Sébastien Bonenfant 8 Marianne Borritz 9 Hermann Burr 10 Els Clays 11 Annalisa Casini 12 Nico Dragano 13 Raimund Erbel 14 Goedele Geuskens 15 Marcel Goldberg 8 Wendela Hooftman 15 Irene Houtman 15 Matti Joensuu 1 Karl-Heinz Jöckel 16 France Kittel 12 Anders Knutsson 17 Markku Koskenvuo 18 Aki Koskinen 1 Anne Kouvonen 19 Constanze Leineweber 2 Thorsten Lunau 13 Ida Madsen 7 Linda Magnusson Hanson 2 Michael Marmot 20 Martin Nielsen 9 Maria Nordin 21 Jaana Pentti 1 Paula Salo 1 Reiner Rugulies 22, 7 Andrew Steptoe 20 Johannes Siegrist 23 Sakari Suominen 24, 25, 26 Jussi Vahtera 1 Marianna Virtanen 1 Ari Väänänen 1 Peter Westerholm 2 Hugo Westerlund 2 Marie Zins 8 Töres Theorell 2 Mark Hamer 20 Jane Ferrie 20 Archana Singh-Manoux 20, 8 David Batty 20 Mika Kivimäki 20
Abstract : Tobacco smoking is a major contributor to the public health burden and healthcare costs worldwide, but the determinants of smoking behaviours are poorly understood. We conducted a large individual-participant meta-analysis to examine the extent to which work-related stress, operationalised as job strain, is associated with tobacco smoking in working adults. We analysed cross-sectional data from 15 European studies comprising 166,130 participants. Longitudinal data from six studies were used. Job strain and smoking were self-reported. Smoking was harmonised into three categories never, ex- and current. We modelled the cross-sectional associations using logistic regression and the results pooled in random effects meta-analyses. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to examine longitudinal associations. Of the 166,130 participants, 17% reported job strain, 42% were never smokers, 33% ex-smokers and 25% current smokers. In the analyses of the cross-sectional data, current smokers had higher odds of job strain than never-smokers (age, sex and socioeconomic position-adjusted odds ratio: 1.11, 95% confidence interval: 1.03, 1.18). Current smokers with job strain smoked, on average, three cigarettes per week more than current smokers without job strain. In the analyses of longitudinal data (1 to 9 years of follow-up), there was no clear evidence for longitudinal associations between job strain and taking up or quitting smoking. Our findings show that smokers are slightly more likely than non-smokers to report work-related stress. In addition, smokers who reported work stress smoked, on average, slightly more cigarettes than stress-free smokers.
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PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2011, 7 (7), pp.e35463. 〈10.1371/journal.pone.0035463〉
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Katriina Heikkilä, Solja Nyberg, Eleonor Fransson, Lars Alfredsson, Dirk De Bacquer, et al.. Job strain and tobacco smoking: an individual-participant data meta-analysis of 166,130 adults in 15 European studies.. PLoS ONE, Public Library of Science, 2011, 7 (7), pp.e35463. 〈10.1371/journal.pone.0035463〉. 〈inserm-01157499〉

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