Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Models for Prostate-Specific Antigen Kinetics and Link with Survival in the Context of Metastatic Prostate Cancer: a Comparison by Simulation of Two-Stage and Joint Approaches

Abstract : In metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) clinical trials, the assessment of treatment efficacy essentially relies on the time-to-death and the kinetics of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Joint modelling has been increasingly used to characterize the relationship between a time-to-event and a biomarker kinetics but numerical difficulties often limit this approach to linear models. Here we evaluated by simulation the capability of a new feature of the Stochastic Approximation Expectation-Maximization algorithm in Monolix to estimate the parameters of a joint model where PSA kinetics was defined by a mechanistic nonlinear mixed-effect model. The design of the study and the parameter values were inspired from one arm of a clinical trial. Increasingly high levels of association between PSA and survival were considered and results were compared with those found using two simplified alternatives to joint model, a two-stage and a joint sequential model. We found that joint model allowed for a precise estimation of all longitudinal and survival parameters. In particular the effect of PSA kinetics on survival could be precisely estimated, regardless of the strength of the association. In contrast, both simplified approaches led to bias on longitudinal parameters and two-stage model systematically underestimated the effect of PSA kinetics on survival. In summary we showed that joint model can be used to characterize the relationship between a nonlinear kinetics and survival. This opens the way for the use of more complex and physiological models to improve treatment evaluation and prediction in oncology.
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The AAPS Journal, 2015, pp.1550-7416. 〈link.springer.com〉. 〈10.1208/s12248-015-9745-5〉
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Solène Desmée, France Mentré, Christine Veyrat-Follet, Jérémie Guedj. Nonlinear Mixed-Effect Models for Prostate-Specific Antigen Kinetics and Link with Survival in the Context of Metastatic Prostate Cancer: a Comparison by Simulation of Two-Stage and Joint Approaches. The AAPS Journal, 2015, pp.1550-7416. 〈link.springer.com〉. 〈10.1208/s12248-015-9745-5〉. 〈inserm-01130444〉

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