New insights into pediatric idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis: the French RespiRare(R) cohort.

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis (IPH) is a rare cause of alveolar hemorrhage in children and its pathophysiology remains obscure. Classically, diagnosis is based on a triad including hemoptysis, diffuse parenchymal infiltrates on chest X-rays, and iron-deficiency anemia. We present the French pediatric cohort of IPH collected through the French Reference Center for Rare Lung Diseases (RespiRare(R), www.respirare.fr). METHODS: Since 2008, a national network/web-linked RespiRare(R) database has been set up in 12 French pediatric respiratory centres. It is structured as a medical recording tool with extended disease-specific datasets containing clinical information relevant to all forms of rare lung diseases including IPH. RESULTS: We identified 25 reported cases of IPH in children from the database (20 females and 5 males). Among them, 5 presented with Down syndrome. Upon diagnosis, median age was 4.3 [0.8-14.0] yrs, and the main manifestations were: dyspnea (n = 17, 68%), anemia (n = 16, 64%), cough (n = 12, 48%), febrile pneumonia (n = 11, 44%) and hemoptysis (n = 11, 44%). Half of the patients demonstrated diffuse parenchymal infiltrates on chest imaging, and diagnosis was ascertained either by broncho-alveolar lavage indicating the presence of hemosiderin-laden macrophages (19/25 cases), or lung biopsy (6/25). In screened patients, initial auto-immune screening revealed positive ANCA (n = 6, 40%), ANA (n = 5, 45%) and specific coeliac disease antibodies (n = 4, 28%). All the patients were initially treated by corticosteroids. In 13 cases, immunosuppressants were introduced due to corticoresistance and/or major side effects. Median length of follow-up was 5.5 yrs, with a satisfactory respiratory outcome in 23/25 patients. One patient developed severe pulmonary fibrosis, and another with Down syndrome died as a result of severe pulmonary hemorrhage. CONCLUSION: The present cohort provides substantial information on clinical expression and outcomes of pediatric IPH. Analysis of potential contributors supports a role of auto-immunity in disease development and highlights the importance of genetic factors.
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Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, BioMed Central, 2013, 8 (1), pp.161. 〈10.1186/1750-1172-8-161〉
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Jessica Taytard, Nadia Nathan, Jacques De Blic, Mickael Fayon, Ralph Epaud, et al.. New insights into pediatric idiopathic pulmonary hemosiderosis: the French RespiRare(R) cohort.. Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases, BioMed Central, 2013, 8 (1), pp.161. 〈10.1186/1750-1172-8-161〉. 〈inserm-00874869〉

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