Functional characterization of EZH2beta reveals the increased complexity of EZH2 isoforms involved in the regulation of mammalian gene expression.

Abstract : BACKGROUND: Histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homologue 2 (EZH2) forms an obligate repressive complex with suppressor of zeste 12 and embryonic ectoderm development, which is thought, along with EZH1, to be primarily responsible for mediating Polycomb-dependent gene silencing. Polycomb-mediated repression influences gene expression across the entire gamut of biological processes, including development, differentiation and cellular proliferation. Deregulation of EZH2 expression is implicated in numerous complex human diseases. To date, most EZH2-mediated function has been primarily ascribed to a single protein product of the EZH2 locus. RESULTS: We report that the EZH2 locus undergoes alternative splicing to yield at least two structurally and functionally distinct EZH2 methyltransferases. The longest protein encoded by this locus is the conventional enzyme, which we refer to as EZH2alpha, whereas EZH2beta, characterized here, represents a novel isoform. We find that EZH2beta localizes to the cell nucleus, complexes with embryonic ectoderm development and suppressor of zeste 12, trimethylates histone 3 at lysine 27, and mediates silencing of target promoters. At the cell biological level, we find that increased EZH2beta induces cell proliferation, demonstrating that this protein is functional in the regulation of processes previously attributed to EZH2alpha. Biochemically, through the use of genome-wide expression profiling, we demonstrate that EZH2beta governs a pattern of gene repression that is often ontologically redundant from that of EZH2alpha, but also divergent for a wide variety of specific target genes. CONCLUSIONS: Combined, these results demonstrate that an expanded repertoire of EZH2 writers can modulate histone code instruction during histone 3 lysine 27-mediated gene silencing. These data support the notion that the regulation of EZH2-mediated gene silencing is more complex than previously anticipated and should guide the design and interpretation of future studies aimed at understanding the biochemical and biological roles of this important family of epigenomic regulators.
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Epigenetics and Chromatin, BioMed Central, 2013, 6 (1), pp.3. 〈10.1186/1756-8935-6-3〉
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Adrienne Grzenda, Gwen Lomberk, Phyllis Svingen, Angela Mathison, Ezequiel Calvo, et al.. Functional characterization of EZH2beta reveals the increased complexity of EZH2 isoforms involved in the regulation of mammalian gene expression.. Epigenetics and Chromatin, BioMed Central, 2013, 6 (1), pp.3. 〈10.1186/1756-8935-6-3〉. 〈inserm-00803760〉

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