Résumé : Nanomedicine is defined as the area using nanotechnology's concepts for the benefit of human beings' health and well being. In this article, we aimed to provide an overview of areas where nanotechnology is applied and how they could be extended to care for psychiatric illnesses. The main applications of nanotechnology in psychiatry are (i) pharmacology. There are two main difficulties in neuropharmacology: drugs have to pass the blood-brain barrier and then to be internalized by targeted cells. Nanoparticles could increase drugs bioavailability and pharmacokinetics, especially improving safety and efficacy of psychotropic drugs. Liposomes, nanosomes, nanoparticle polymers, nanobubbles are some examples of this targeted drug delivery. Nanotechnologies could also add new pharmacological properties, like nanoshells and dendrimers (ii) living analysis. Nanotechnology provides technical assistance to in vivo imaging or metabolome analysis (iii) central nervous system modeling. Research teams have succeeded to modelize inorganic synapses and mimick synaptic behavior, a step essential for further creation of artificial neural systems. Some nanoparticle assemblies present the same small worlds and free-scale networks architecture as cortical neural networks. Nanotechnologies and quantum physics could be used to create models of artificial intelligence and mental illnesses. We are not about to see a concrete application of nanomedicine in daily psychiatric practice. Even if nanotechnologies are promising, their safety is still inconsistent and this must be kept in mind. However, it seems essential that psychiatrists do not forsake this area of research the perspectives of which could be decisive in the field of mental illness.