Résumé : Abstract Aims: Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction participate together in the development of heart failure (HF). mRNA levels of monoamine oxidase-A (MAO-A), a mitochondrial enzyme that produces hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), increase in several models of cardiomyopathies. Therefore, we hypothesized that an increase in cardiac MAO-A could cause oxidative stress and mitochondrial damage, leading to cardiac dysfunction. In the present study, we evaluated the consequences of cardiac MAO-A augmentation on chronic oxidative damage, cardiomyocyte survival, and heart function, and identified the intracellular pathways involved. Results: We generated transgenic (Tg) mice with cardiac-specific MAO-A overexpression. Tg mice displayed cardiac MAO-A activity levels similar to those found in HF and aging. As expected, Tg mice showed a significant decrease in the cardiac amounts of the MAO-A substrates serotonin and norepinephrine. This was associated with enhanced H(2)O(2) generation in situ and mitochondrial DNA oxidation. As a consequence, MAO-A Tg mice demonstrated progressive loss of cardiomyocytes by necrosis and ventricular failure, which were prevented by chronic treatment with the MAO-A inhibitor clorgyline and the antioxidant N-acetyl-cystein. Interestingly, Tg hearts exhibited p53 accumulation and downregulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), a master regulator of mitochondrial function. This was concomitant with cardiac mitochondrial ultrastructural defects and ATP depletion. In vitro, MAO-A adenovirus transduction of neonatal cardiomyocytes mimicked the results in MAO-A Tg mice, triggering oxidative stress-dependent p53 activation, leading to PGC-1α downregulation, mitochondrial impairment, and cardiomyocyte necrosis. Innovation and Conclusion: We provide the first evidence that MAO-A upregulation in the heart causes oxidative mitochondrial damage, p53-dependent repression of PGC-1α, cardiomyocyte necrosis, and chronic ventricular dysfunction. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 00, 000-000.