Reverse genetics in eukaryotes.

Abstract : Reverse genetics consists in the modification of the activity of a target gene to analyse the phenotypic consequences. Four main approaches are used towards this goal and will be explained in this review. Two of them are centred on genome alterations. Mutations produced by random chemical or insertional mutagenesis can be screened to recover only mutants in a specific gene of interest. Alternatively, these alterations may be specifically targeted on a gene of interest by HR (homologous recombination). The other two approaches are centred on mRNA. RNA interference is a powerful method to reduce the level of gene products, while MO (morpholino) antisense oligonucleotides alter mRNA metabolism or translation. Some model species, such as Drosophila, are amenable to most of these approaches, whereas other model species are restricted to one of them. For example, in mice and yeasts, gene targeting by HR is prevalent, whereas in Xenopus and zebrafish MO oligonucleotides are mainly used. Genome-wide collections of mutants or inactivated models obtained in several species by these approaches have been made and will help decipher gene functions in the post-genomic era.
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Biology of the Cell, Wiley, 2010, 102 (10), pp.561-80. 〈10.1042/BC20100038〉
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Serge Hardy, Vincent Legagneux, Yann Audic, Luc Paillard. Reverse genetics in eukaryotes.. Biology of the Cell, Wiley, 2010, 102 (10), pp.561-80. 〈10.1042/BC20100038〉. 〈inserm-00511685〉

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